Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The purpose of this essay is to look at the ways in which a child retains information, how that information is processed and the possible barriers involved. There will be some focus on the theories of learning and the strategies and practices employed in the classroom. At this juncture it must be stated that Ã¢â¬ËensuringÃ¢â¬â¢ may be an ambiguous word, and that Ã¢â¬ËenablingÃ¢â¬â¢ the understanding may be more precise, as no matter how vociferous the intention to Ã¢â¬ËensureÃ¢â¬â¢ there will always be pupils who fall through the net or may even have developed their own strategies to cope with not understanding yet leading the teacher to believe they have. Surely the answer to this statement must begin with good Ã¢â¬ËcommunicationÃ¢â¬â¢. It is recognised that communication is a Ã¢â¬Ëtwo way processÃ¢â¬â¢, starting as far back as pre-birth as stated by Elisbeth Hallett in her book Ã¢â¬ËSoul Trek Meeting our Children on the Way to BirthÃ¢â¬â¢ (1995). If this idea is to stand the test of time, the pupils must therefore be given the opportunity to verbalise their level of understanding before a task is attempted. This relatively obvious procedure may not be possible in pupils with any existence of special educational need. Difficulties affecting the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s processing ability and auditory impairment may not always manifest themselves but will result in poor communication (Dittrich and Tutt, 2008). Therefore the need for effective two communication and pupils feeling empowered to be able to ask for help becomes a priority in teaching. Ed Balls (2007) states Ã¢â¬Ëeffective communication and language skills are fundamental to young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s learning, developing social skills and fulfilling their potentialÃ¢â¬â¢. Whatever the age of the learner, the cognitive ability, the language or SEN barriers, good clear, age specific, decipherable communication must be the key to understanding. Piaget (cited Pound, 2005) believed that children learnt in stages dependent on age and awareness of their environment and surroundings. These stages will also impact on the ability for a child to understand an explanation. Therefore before logical thinking arrives at around 7-11 years of age, visual, tactile clues and instructions, will beÃ more easily absorbed. However the need still exists to enable understanding of the need to progress on to attempting and succeeding. Creating that perfect classroom setting where the teacher delivers the starter and instructions and the class independently commences the task without any clarification is an ideal not often witnessed. This could be for many reasons; the class size, noise levels or even visibility of the teacher. Psychologists such as Maslow (1954) talk about the 5 levels of need in life, from the very basics of environmental issues to self-actualisation and problem solving. Therefore being conscious of these factors, room layout, and temperature, even lighting, may influence the ability to understand and disseminate instructions independently. These physical ideals are not always possible, given the large number of pupils in the classroom. As reported in a study by the Dfe (2011), Ã¢â¬Ëresearch findings from England show that in smaller classes, individual pupils are the focus of a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s attention for more time; there is more active interaction between pupils and teachers; and more pupil engagementÃ¢â¬â¢. Taking all these possible barriers into account and the different learning styles that exist, it is paramount therefore to create the correct atmosphere conducive to learning in the classroom. Planning should incorporate this and the use of good vocal skills will promote confidence and assertiveness (Bruce, 2005). Instilling a sense of self belief and esteem that encourages children to engage and be able to ask for help or explanation. However despite all these strategies being in place it must be noted that levels of understanding will differ and aiming the teaching at the correct level of ability is essential. Froebel (cited, Pound 2005) states Ã¢â¬Ëto begin where the learner isÃ¢â¬â¢. A valid statement that is underpinned by most theorists who believe that cognitive understanding relates to developmental stages in age and maturity. Piaget believed that learning was supported by action. That thought is developed by experiencing and active experimenting. With the knowledge of al l the impediments in place let us know consider the classroom strategies available. A tried and tested method is to ask the pupils what they think their course of action will be. For example Ã¢â¬Ëwhat do you think I want you to do when you have read through the text?Ã¢â¬â¢. (Case, 2010). This in itself for some, may take someÃ coding and decoding and therefore present vast possibilities of misunderstanding (Denby, 2012). Obviously the message has to be first Ã¢â¬ËcodedÃ¢â¬â¢ by the teacher , in other words putting it into a form that can be understood, this may be visual or written. As many theorists claim however, interpretation of the spoken word is not only auditory. Approximately 35% of meaning is in the way it is actually said and a further 55% in body language and facial expression (Mehrabian, 1971). Highlighting as previously mentioned the importance of the positioning of the teacher in the room and the classroom layout. If the pupils cannot see the teacher, they may miss important facets of the instruction that will then mean them having to fill in the gaps by guessing. As Piaget states Ã¢â¬Ë learning is a process of active discoveryÃ¢â¬â¢ (Piaget sited MacNaughton, 2003). As teachers there is a need to facilitate the understanding by firstly using age and ability levelled speak. If the cognitive level is pitched too high there may only be a small number of the class that understand. Merely asking Ã¢â¬Å"do you all understand ?Ã¢â¬Å", is as good as useless as Swift (2007) demonstrates. This question will leave those that havenÃ¢â¬â¢t understood too shy to admit it and some that think they have understood but may in fact have not. A more successful way would be to ask them to repeat back the instructions, making sure a less able pupil is asked so there is a better gauge of the whole class and not just the brightest pupils. It may be a practical task that two pupils could demonstrate to show their level of understanding, or if itÃ¢â¬â¢s a written task, they might offer the answer to the first question for instance. A further method for tasks that are known to the pupils, ask them what they think they have to do. This draws on prior learning and offers the teacher information for future planning also. It may be possible to just give instructions for the first part of the lesson. Stopping half way through to do a mini plenary, and then giving the second set of instructions to finish the task can also help to pace out the amount of instructions being given. Having the explanation and expected outcomes within the Learning Intention that the pupils write in their books can offer help to those who may wander off track too. Or indeed having them all written on the whiteboard or displayed on the IWB. (1339) Balls, E. (2007) Department for Children Schools and Families. [online],Ã available at http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/talktoyourbaby/quotes.html [Accessed 4 No 2012]. Bruce, T. (2005) Developing learning in early childhood. Buckingham: Open University Press. Case, A. (2010) Making Sure Students Understood Your Instructions. [online]. Available at http://edition.tefl.net/articles/teacher/instructions/ [Accessed 18 Nov 2012]. Denby, N. (2012) Training to Teach- A guide for students. London: Sage Publications. Department for Education, ( 2011). Economics, Evaluation and Appraisal Team Education Standards Analysis and Research Division. [online] at : https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/DFE-RR169.pdf Dittrich,H. and Tutt, R. (2008) Educating Childern with Complex Conditions. London : Sage Publications. Hallett, E. (1995) Soul Trek: Meeting our Children on the Way to Birth. Montana : Light Heart Publishing. MacNaughton, G. (2003) Shaping Early Childhood : Learning, curriculum and context. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Maslow, A. (1954) MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs. [Accessed : 16.11.12]. online at : http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html Mehrabian, A. (1971) Silent Messages. California. Wadsworth. Pound, L. (2007) How children learn. London: Step forward publishing. Swift, S. (2007) Giving and Checking Instructions. [online] at : http://ezinearticles.com/?Giving-and-Checking-Instructions&id=404950 [Accessed : 19 Nov 2012].
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
There are so many fun activities to do in, on, and around the water; thus, making it a difficult choice a as to which way to spend a day in the sun. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a creek, lake, river or the ocean, there are may ways to have fun in the water, and stay cool. Surfing is a water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a Ã¢â¬Å"surfer,Ã¢â¬ rides on the forward face of a wave, which is most often carrying the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily found in the ocean, however, modern-day surfing can also be done in man-made sources such as wave pools. Snorkeling is a form of recreational diving that allows swimmers to explore the surface of oceans or lakes, and dive to shallow depths. Basic equipment used in snorkeling are the dive mask, fins and a snorkel. The dive mask allows clear vision of the underwater environment without damage to the eyes. Fins allow a swimmer to propel, his or her self, through the water efficiently and with minimal disturbance to the environment. The snorkel is designed to allow you to submerge your face and head at the surface of the water, and still breath. Additional snorkeling equipment includes; snorkel, vests for floatation, and protective wet suits for cold water diving conditions. Tubing is a water sport that usually takes place on a large body of water such as a lake or river. One or more tube riders, (often called Ã¢â¬Å"tubersÃ¢â¬ ) tether their tubes to a powered watercraft, such as a ski boat or a pontoon boat. The riders are then towed through the water by the watercraft. Noodling is a type of fishing for the thrill seeker. Although the concept of catching fish with only the use of the arm in the water is simple enough, the process of noodling is more complicated. The choice of catfish as the prey is not arbitrary, but comes from the circumstances of their habitat. Flathead catfish live in holes or under brush in rivers and lakes, thus making the fish easy to capture. To begin, a noodler (fisherman) goes underwater to depths ranging from only a few feet, up to twenty feet, and places his hand inside a discovered catfish hole. Assuming all goes as planned, the catfish will swim forward and latch onto the fishermanÃ¢â¬â¢s hand, usually as a defensive maneuver, as an attempt to protect itÃ¢â¬â¢s hole. The fish can be particularly large, in which case, the noodler can hook his hand around its gills to retrieve his catch. This sport has been outlawed in several states due to the many dangers, and risks of the sport. As you can see there are a verity of water sports to choose from when you plan your next out door adventure. From surfing crystal blue waters, to taking chanced in a merry catfish hole, there is a water spot to suit every type of thrill seeker.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Research Assignment, Part One Brandon Kelly IT221 Ã¢â¬â E-2 Fall 2011 Instructor: Stephen Todd 12-17-2011 Question 1 Ã¢â¬â Why does Windows Server 2008 come in different versions? What is the significance of each version? Most editions of Windows Server 2008 are available in x86-64 and IA-32 versions. Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems supports IA-64 processors. Microsoft has optimized the IA-64 version for high-workload scenarios like database servers and Line of Business (LOB) applications. As such it is not optimized for use as a file server or media server. Microsoft has announced that Windows Server 2008 is the last 32-bit Windows server operating system. Windows Server 2008 is available in the editions listed below, similar to Windows Server 2003. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows Server 2008 Standard (IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server 2008 Standard is one of Microsoft's entry level server offerings (alongside Windows Web Server 2008) and is one of the least expensive of the various editions available. Both 32-bit and 64-bit versions are available, and in terms of hardware Standard Edition supports up to 4GB of RAM and 4 processors. Windows Server 2008 is primarily targeted and small and mid-sized businesses (SMBs) and is ideal for providing domain, web, DNS, remote access, print, file and application services. Support for clustering, however, is notably absent from this edition. An upgrade path to Windows Server 2008 Standard is available from Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows Server 2008 Enterprise (IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition provides greater functionality and scalability than the Standard Edition. As with Standard Edition both 32-bit and 64-bit versions are available. Enhancements include support for as many as 8 processors and up to 64GB of RAM on 32-bit systems and 2TB of RAM on 64-bit systems. Additional features of the Enterprise edition include support for clusters of up to 8 nodes and Active Directory Federated Services (AD FS). Windows Server 2000, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition and Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition may all be upgraded to Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows Server 2008 Datacenter (IA-32 and x86-64) The Datacenter edition represents the top end of the Windows Server 2008 product range and is targeted at mission critical enterprises requiring stability and high uptime levels. Windows Server 2008 Datacenter edition is tied closely to the underlying hardware through the implementation of custom Hardware Abstraction Layers (HAL). As such, it is currently only possible to obtain Datacenter edition as part of a hardware purchase. As with other versions, the Datacenter edition is available in 32-bit and 64-bit versions and supports 64GB of RAM on 32-bit systems and up to 2TB of RAM on 64-bit systems. In addition, this edition supports a minimum of 8 processors up to a maximum of 64. Upgrade paths to Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition are available from the Datacenter editions of Windows 2000 and 2003. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows HPC Server 2008 (Codenamed Ã¢â¬Å"SocratesÃ¢â¬ ) (replacing Windows Compute Cluster Server 2003) Windows HPC Server 2008 R2, the Microsoft third-generation HPC solution, provides a comprehensive and cost-effective solution for harnessing the power of high-performance computing. Out-of-the-box, world-class performance, and scalability enable organizations of all sizes to rapidly deploy solutions ranging from personal HPC workstations to large clusters spanning thousands of nodes. Customers can lower both their operating and capital costs. Windows HPC Server 2008 R2 integrates easily with existing IT infrastructure to enable end users to access HPC resources using familiar Windows-based technologies. With a tightly integrated set of dedicated cluster and parallel development tools, anchored around Visual Studio 2010, developers can build robust and scalable HPC applications easily and quickly. Windows HPC Server 2008 R2 is complemented by a rich ecosystem of SI, ISV, and OEM partners to ensure that customers have access to the applications of their choice and the resources required to successfully run them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows Web Server 2008 (IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Web Server 2008 is essentially a version of Windows Server 2008 designed primarily for the purpose of providing web services. It includes Internet Information Services (IIS) 7. 0 along with associated services such as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and Telnet. It is available in 32-bit and 64-bit versions and supports up to 4 processors. RAM is limited to 4GB and 32GB on 32-bit and 64-bit systems respectively. Windows Web Server 2008 lacks many of the features present in other editions such as clustering, BitLocker drive encryption, multipath I/O, Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS), Removable Storage Management and SAN Management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows Storage Server 2008 (Codenamed Ã¢â¬Å"MagniÃ¢â¬ ) (IA-32 and x86-64) Minimal information found. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows Small Business Server 2008 (Codenamed Ã¢â¬Å"CougarÃ¢â¬ ) (x86-64) for small businesses Minimal information found. Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems Windows Server 2008 R2 for Itanium-Based Systems delivers an enterprise-class platform for deploying business-critical applications. Scale database, line-of-business, and custom applications to meet growing business needs. Windows Server 2008 R2, SQL Server 2008 R2 and the current 2010 line-up of our Developer Tools, plus associated . NET frameworks, will be the last iterations in each product line t o support the Intel Itanium processor and associated OEM server platforms. Windows Server 2008 Foundation (Codenamed Ã¢â¬Å"LimaÃ¢â¬ ) Windows Server 2008 R2 Foundation is a cost-effective, entry-level technology foundation targeted at small business owners and IT generalists supporting small businesses. Foundation is an inexpensive, easy-to-deploy, proven, and reliable technology that provides organizations with the foundation to run the most prevalent business applications as well as share information and resources. Server Core is available in the Web, Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter editions. It is not available in the Itanium edition. Server Core is simply an alternate installation option supported by some of the editions, and not a separate edition by itself. Each architecture has a separate installation DVD. The 32-bit version of Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition is available to verified students for free through Microsoft's DreamSpark program. Question 2 Ã¢â¬â What are the new features or enhancements made to Windows Server 2008? How is Windows Server 2008 different from Windows Server 2003? Core OS improvements Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fully multi-componentized operating system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improved hot patching, a feature that allows non-kernel patches to occur without the need for a reboot. Support for being booted from Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)-compliant firmware on x86-64 systems. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dynamic Hardware Partitioning o Support for the hot-addition or replacement of processors and memory, on capable hardware. Active Directory improvements Ã¢â¬ ¢ Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) in Active Directory, intende d for use in branch office or other scenarios where a domain controller may reside in a low physical security environment. The RODC holds a non-writeable copy of Active Directory, and redirects all write attempts to a Full Domain Controller. It replicates all accounts except sensitive ones. citation needed][clarification needed] In RODC mode, credentials are not cached by default. Moreover, only the replication partner of the RODC needs to run Windows Server 2008. [clarification needed] Also, local administrators can log on to the machine to perform maintenance tasks without requiring administrative rights on the domain. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Restartable Active Directory allows ADDS to be stopped and restarted from the Management Console or the command-line without rebooting the domain controller. This reduces downtime for offline operations and reduces overall DC servicing requirements with Server Core. ADDS is implemented as a Domain Controller Service in Windows Server 2008. Policy related improvements Ã¢â¬ ¢ All of the Group Policy improvements from Windows Vista are included. Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) is built-in. The Group Policy objects are indexed for search and can be commented on. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Policy-based networking with Network Access Protection, improved branch management and enhanced end user collaboration. Policies can be created to ensure greater Quality of Service for certain applications or services that require prioritization of network bandwidth between client and server. Granular password settings within a single domain Ã¢â¬â ability to implement different password policies for administrative accounts on a Ã¢â¬Å"groupÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"userÃ¢â¬ basis, instead of a single set of password settings to the whole domain. Disk management and file storage improvements Ã¢â¬ ¢ The ability to resize hard disk partitions without stopping the server, even th e system partition. This applies only to simple and spanned volumes, not to striped volumes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Shadow Copy based block-level backup which supports optical media, network shares and Windows Recovery Environment. DFS enhancements Ã¢â¬â SYSVOL on DFS-R, Read-only Folder Replication Member. There is also support for domain-based DFS namespaces that exceed the previous size recommendation of 5,000 folders with targets in a namespace. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Several improvements to Failover Clustering (High-availability clusters). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Internet Storage Naming Server (iSNS) enables central registration, deregistration and queries for iSCSI hard drives. Protocol and cryptography improvements Ã¢â¬ ¢ Support for 128- and 256-bit AES encryption for the Kerberos authentication protocol. New cryptography (CNG) API which supports elliptic curve cryptography and improved certificate management. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol, a new Microsoft proprietary VPN protocol. Ã¢â¬ ¢ AuthIP, a Micro soft proprietary extension of the IKE cryptographic protocol used in IPsec VPN networks. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Server Message Block 2. 0 protocol in the new TCP/IP stack provides a number of communication enhancements, including greater performance when connecting to file shares over high-latency links and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing. Miscellaneous improvements Windows Deployment Services replacing Automated Deployment Services and Remote Installation Services. Windows Deployment Services (WDS) support an enhanced multicast feature when deploying operating system images. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Internet Information Services 7 Ã¢â¬â Increased security, Robocopy deployment, improved diagnostic tools, delegated administration. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows Internal Database, a variant of SQL Server Express 2005, which serves as a common storage back-end for several other components such as Windows System Resource Manager, Windows SharePoint Services and Windows Server Update Se rvices. It is not intended to be used by third-party applications. Ã¢â¬ ¢ An optional Ã¢â¬Å"Desktop ExperienceÃ¢â¬ component provides the same Windows Aero user interface as Windows Vista, both for local users, as well as remote users connecting through Remote Desktop. Question 3 Ã¢â¬â Why is 64-bit architecture an advantage? Advantages of 64-bit hardware and software Memory addressability Physical memory A 32-bit system architecture can directly address only a 4-GB address space. A 64-bit system architecture that is running a 64-bit edition of Windows Server can support up to 1,024 GB of both physical and addressable memory. Virtual memory The 64-bit editions of Windows Server can address 16 terabytes of virtual memory by using a flat addressing model. Virtual memory is divided equally between virtual address space for applications and the operating system. Even 32-bit applications can benefit from increased virtual memory address space when they are running in a 64-bit environment. For example, although a 32-bit application is still restricted to 4 GB of virtual memory, it no longer has to share that memory space with the operating system. As a result, it receives an effective increase in available virtual memory. Continuous memory Poor performance in 32-bit systems is often not the result of a lack of available memory, but the unavailability of large enough blocks of continuous memory. In a typical Windows SharePoint Services 3. 0 deployment, Windows, Internet Information Services (IIS), common language runtime (CLR), ASP. NET, SharePoint Products and Technologies, SSPs, and MDACs can all claim a portion of a serverÃ¢â¬â¢s available virtual memory and can leave a 32-bit address space quite fragmented. When the CLR or SharePoint services request new memory blocks, it can be difficult to find a 64-MB segment in the crowded 32-bit address space. A 64-bit system offers practically unlimited address space for user mode processes. Better parallel processing A server that is using 32-bit architecture is limited to 32 CPUs. Improvements in parallel processing and bus architectures enable 64-bit environments to support as many as 64 processors and provide almost linear scalability with each additional processor. Faster bus architecture A 64-bit architecture provides more and wider general-purpose registers, which contribute to greater overall application speed. When there are more registers, there is less need to write persistent data to memory and then have to read it back just a few instructions later. Function calls are also faster in a 64-bit environment because as many as four arguments at a time can be passed in registers to a function. More secure The 64-bit editions of Windows Server offer the following enhanced security features: Buffer overflow protection A buffer overflow occurs when a data buffer is congested with more data than it is designed to handle. In 64-bit editions of Windows Server, the first parameters of a procedure call are passed in registers. As a result, it is less likely that the buffer will overflow, because the correct values have to be set up in registers and the variables and addresses have to be aligned on the stack. Data execution protection The 64-bit processors made by AMD and Intel include hardware support for data execution prevention (DEP). Windows Server uses DEP to prevent malicious code from being able to execute, even when a buffer overrun occurs. Even without a processor that supports DEP, Windows Server can detect code that is running in memory locations where it should not be. Patch Guard Microsoft Patch Guard technology prevents non-Microsoft programs from patching the Windows kernel. This technology prevents kernel mode drivers from extending or replacing kernel services, including system service dispatch tables, the interrupt descriptor table (IDT), and the global descriptor table (GDT). Third-party software is also prevented from allocating kernel stacks or patching any part of the kernel. Better scalability In a 64-bit environment, not only can database servers gain nearly unlimited virtual memory address space, but they also gain support for more physical memory. It is possible for a 64-bit server that is running 64-bit editions of Windows Server and SQL Server to get very large working data sets entirely into RAM, thereby improving performance and scalability. In addition, the number of application servers that are required to support a given user base can be substantially reduced because a 64-bit environment does not require worker processes to cycle as often. This reduced cycling results in fewer lost connections, improved I/O handling, and a better user experience. Lower total cost of ownership All the benefits of 64-bit operation that are listed in the previous sections enable you to do more with less. A 64-bit environment allows you to manage more data, serve more users, and run more applications while using less hardware. By reducing hardware, you are also able to reduce license, operations, and infrastructure costs. It takes up less floor space in your data center and costs less to maintain. Finally, because a Windows SharePoint Services 3. 0 farm that uses 64-bit hardware and software provides more room for growth, you can spend less over time on equipment because the life cycle of your equipment is likely to be longer. Question 4 Ã¢â¬â Explain the new features of Windows Server 2008, such as Server Core, Virtualization, and PowerShell. What is the role of these features and how will they improve efficiency in administering Windows? Server Core Windows Server 2008 includes a variation of installation called Server Core. Server Core is a significantly scaled-back installation where no Windows Explorer shell is installed. All configuration and maintenance is done entirely through command line interface windows, or by connecting to the machine remotely using Microsoft Management Console. However, Notepad and some control panel applets, such as Regional Settings, are available. Server Core does not include the . NET Framework, Internet Explorer, Windows PowerShell or many other features not related to core server features. A Server Core machine can be configured for several basic roles: Domain controller/Active Directory Domain Services, ADLDS (ADAM), DNS Server, DHCP Server, file server, print server, Windows Media Server, IIS 7 Web server and Hyper-V virtual server. Server Core can also be used to create a cluster with high availability using failover clustering or network load balancing. Andrew Mason, a program manager on the Windows Server team, noted that a primary motivation for producing a Server Core variant of Windows Server 2008 was to reduce the attack surface of the operating system, and that about 70% of the security vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows from the prior five years would not have affected Server Core. Hyper-V Hyper-V is hypervisor-based virtualization software, forming a core part of Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small computational partitions. Hyper-V includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized. A beta version of Hyper-V shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server 2008, prior to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V on 26 June 2008 as a free download. Also, a standalone version of Hyper-V exists; this version only supports the x86-64 architecture. While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server 2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V. Server Manager Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows Server 2008. It is a combination of Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard from Windows Server 2003. Server Manager is an improvement of the Configure my server dialog that launches by default on Windows Server 2003 machines. However, rather than serve only as a starting point to configuring new roles, Server Manager gathers together all of the operations users would want to conduct on the server, such as, getting a remote deployment method set up, adding more server roles etc. , and provides a consolidated, portal-like view about the status of each role. Windows Powershell Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's task automation framework, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language built on top of, and integrated with the . NET Framework. PowerShell provides full access to COM and WMI, enabling administrators to perform administrative tasks on both local and remote Windows systems. Question 5 Ã¢â¬â What is a Read Only Domain Controller (RODC) and what are its advantages? What are the security and administrative issues addressed by a RODC? A read-only domain controller (RODC) is a new type of domain controller in the WindowsÃ ServerÃ 2008 operating system. With an RODC, organizations can easily deploy a domain controller in locations where physical security cannot be guaranteed. An RODC hosts read-only partitions of the ActiveÃ DirectoryÃ DomainÃ Services (ADÃ DS) database. Before the release of Windows ServerÃ 2008, if users had to authenticate with a domain controller over a wide area network (WAN), there was no real alternative. In many cases, this was not an efficient solution. Branch offices often cannot provide the adequate physical security that is required for a writable domain controller. Furthermore, branch offices often have poor network bandwidth when they are connected to a hub site. This can increase the amount of time that is required to log on. It can also hamper access to network resources. Beginning with Windows ServerÃ 2008, an organization can deploy an RODC to address these problems. As a result, users in this situation can receive the following benefits: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improved security Ã¢â¬ ¢ Faster logon times Ã¢â¬ ¢ More efficient access to resources on the network Inadequate physical security is the most common reason to consider deploying an RODC. An RODC provides a way to deploy a domain controller more securely in locations that require fast and reliable authentication services but cannot ensure physical security for a writable domain controller. However, your organization may also choose to deploy an RODC for special administrative requirements. For example, a line-of-business (LOB) application may run successfully only if it is installed on a domain controller. Or, the domain controller might be the only server in the branch office, and it may have to host server applications. In such cases, the LOB application owner must often log on to the domain controller interactively or use Terminal Services to configure and manage the application. This situation creates a security risk that may be unacceptable on a writable domain controller. An RODC provides a more secure mechanism for deploying a domain controller in this scenario. You can grant a non-administrative domain user the right to log on to an RODC while minimizing the security risk to the ActiveÃ Directory forest. You might also deploy an RODC in other scenarios where local storage of all domain user passwords is a primary threat, for example, in an extranet or application-facing role. References Ã¢â¬â Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"AD DS: Read-Only Domain Controllers. Ã¢â¬ Microsoft TechNet: Resources for IT Professionals. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Windows Server 2008. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. Ward10/08/2007, Keith. Ã¢â¬Å"Top 10 Overlooked Windows Server 2008 Features, Part 2 Ã¢â¬â Redmond Developer News. Ã¢â¬ Powering the Windows Software Revolution Ã¢â¬â Redmond Developer News. Web. 03 Jan. 2012 Ã¢â¬Å"Windows Server 2008 Editions and System Requirements Ã¢â¬â Techotopia. Ã¢â¬ Main Page Ã¢â¬â Techotopia. We b. 05 Jan. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Editions. Ã¢â¬ Web. 03 Jan. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Windows PowerShell. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 01 Jan. 2012.
Amilcar cabral - Assignment Example Depending with the type of colonialism, that is, settler or exploitation colonialism, the ant-colonialism movements/groups will employ different techniques in their bid to regain back their freedom and/or autonomy of rule (Lovejoy, 2012); which may take violent and/or non-violent measures. The non-violent techniques and strategies involve diplomacy and negotiations but they are mainly inapplicable simply because the motivation for colonization is long term missioned based on either political, religious and economic interest; and the breakdown of these measures leads to suppression by police or armed forces necessitating the colonies to form revolts to fight for independence. Background Majority of the African countries have had a history of either settlers or exploitation colonization with the latter taking precedence due to minerals and favorable weather and climatic conditions that favored settlerÃ¢â¬â¢s agricultural interest. ... for Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique, Kenya and Swaziland respectively in a bid to fight for their independence (Bienen, 1977). In this paper we shall look into details the activities of Amilcar Cabral and his undying motivation to liberate people of Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde as we analyze the political and social journey during colonial and postcolonial era. Amilcar Cabral was a Guinea Bissau national born on September 12, 1924 and assassinated on January 20, 1973, 8 months afore the unilateral affirmation of liberation for Guinea Bissau. He is viewed as a nationalist thinker and a political leader who based his social-economic and political views on materialist interpretation of historical development and dialectical view of social transformation through analysis of class-relations and conflicts in the society, commonly referred to as Marxism (Callinicos, 2011). Though he was not a Marxist, he drew much of his inspiration and motivation from education and profess ionalism he had gained as an agronomist and a writer from Instituto Superior De Agronomia University in Lisbon, Portugal. While a student in Lisbon, he founded a student movements dedicated to opposing dictatorship rule by Portuguese with an aim of promoting the cause of liberation of Portuguese colonies in Africa, a move that envisioned his political career and a perception as the AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s foremost ant-colonial leader. He led African Party for Independence of Guinea Bissau People and Cape Verde [PAIGC], a guerilla movement he had founded in Guinea Bissau together with MPLA for Angola in 1956, against the Portuguese rule and later evolved as one of the most successful wars of independence in African history. With the vast knowledge of Portuguese traditions he had gotten
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Andy Warhol as Designer - Essay Example The essay "Andy Warhol as Designer" analyzes an American artist, Andy Warhol. Pop art is classified as postmodernism type of art. As a pop artist, Warhol was capable of using different art techniques including: blotted-line ink style or monoprints, hand-painting with paint drips, silk-screens, oxidation paintings, and Rorschach blots among others. Because of his personal desire to become a successful business artist, Warhol eventually concentrated on the use of silk-screen in mass producing his work of art. Discussing the differences in the motivating techniques adopted by the modernist and postmodernist artists is useful in terms of determining how Warhol is unique from other famous artists. The personality of an artist could affect the art technique used in a given art design. Knowing that Warhol has a strong detachment over emotional feelings to his environment, it is easier on the part of the readers to understand the factors that triggered Warhol to come up with a creative way o f reproducing a piece of art design. As part of the modern art movement which took place in England and America during the late 20th century, pop art involved using the popular imagery of the time as subject a matter for art. The movement was contemptuous and mocked many aspects of the modern world such as: comic strips, consumer products, and advertising through the use of celebrities. Andy Warhol Ã¢â¬â an American painter, printmaker and filmmaker earned the title Ã¢â¬Å"Pope of Pop ArtÃ¢â¬ for playing an important role in pop art.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Norse Religion and Mythology - Research Paper Example This mythology is the study of the Germanic myths (Iceland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Faroe Islands and Denmark). The Norse societies later adopted Christianity because the Norse religion was not as strong as other religions. Lindow says that this mythology developed slowly over the years and the importance of different heroes and gods kept varying with time and place (45). They worshipped different gods and did not have any proper organization, as religion was not institutionalized. The absence of priests and temples meant that religion was part of their ordinary lives as they could worship from anywhere they wanted. The Gods and Goddesses of the Norse Religion The Gods and Goddesses of the Norse religion were divided into two major categories: the Vanir and Aesir. The former were referred to as the Earth Gods and symbolized fecundity, riches and fertility. They controlled the earth and the sea and had to be consulted on everything that falls in this category. The most important gods in this category are Freyr, Freya, Njord and Aegir. The Aesir on the other hand were the gods of the sky and they symbolized wisdom, power and war. They lived for relatively long periods and were very powerful but mortal. People could therefore pray to different gods when faced with different situations and their prayers were answered and their wishes granted. Odin Odin is the son of Bor and Bestla; he is the father and leader of all the other gods and men. He is the king of Asgard (the great citadel of the gods) and the ruler of Aersir. He had magical skills and could travel to all the nine Nordic worlds to exert his powers. He had two ravens, Huginn and Munin that could traverse the world on daily basis and inform him on everything that is happening in Midgard. He has magic, wit and wisdom that help him in making key decisions. He is also the lord of knowledge, war & death and could travel the world without being noticed. He rides on an eight legged horse during battles and has unrivalled military intelligence (OÃ¢â¬â¢Donoghue 24). He only has one eye because he traded the other one for wisdom. He is married to Frigg but occasionally flirts with Rind and was the god of poetic inspiration. Together they have three children namely, Thor, Baldur and Vali. He interfered a lot in the affairs of men and was believed to be the cause of the occurrence of many misunderstandings between people. These misunderstandings often led to war as men differed on different issues that were of strategic importance to all parties. Therefore, they turned to him for prayers during wars so he could help them win and humiliate their enemies (Lindow 78). He won his wars mostly through his cunning ways and not force because his wits, guile and stratagem were unequalled on earth. This made him to be a very important member of the god family and could be consulted by kings and other leaders for help before they could venture into any war. His willingness to accept both pain and loss made him gain advantage over men and other gods as he could venture into anything he was interested in. For example, he had to part with one of his eyes in order to be allowed to drink from the Urd. This shows that he could offer to do anything in order to get what he wanted in order to gain advantage over all the others. Through this, he was able to gain wisdom, and became a lot wiser than the others, making him to outwit them with ease (Skye 14). Everything he did was therefore for a purpose and with specific objectives that were of strategic importance to him as a god. He gained knowledge through pain as he was forced to hung and be
Friday, July 26, 2019
Business Management of Organization Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Business Management of Organization - Assignment Example In order to respond to these challenges, managers are developing new institutional designs, which include multi-firm collaborative networks and self-managing teams (ASTD Press, 2006). Managers have come up with creative ways of thinking and addressing a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management processes and strategies, encompassing new methods of talent management, performance management, ethical leadership, and entrepreneurship. This paper will seek to discuss about business management of an organization by looking into prospects like strengths of a future manager. Strengths as a Future Manager As a manager in the future, one must cultivate strengths that consist of the ability or position to find and capitalize on an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s unique characteristics. Generally, great managers revolve one guiding principle, which seeks to understand how to transform an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s unique traits or talent into satisfactory performance. This is so because, the way to success follows the ability to chang e unimaginable trait into a realistic action (Drucker, 2012). In addition, for one to become a successful manager in the future, he or she must possess strength of inspiring employees. Inspiration, according to business analysts, is a crucial yet a rare aspect of management. Strong managers are brilliant enough to spot the unique differences that separate certain employees from others and have the capability to lead via example (Cherry, Connor, & Earner-Sparks, 2011). Leading as an example act as an inspiration on the side of employees. Inspiration plays a pragmatic role in achieving the set goals of an organization. The ability to lead is an atypical thing as it is inborn. As such, becoming a strong and successful manager in the future requires distinct optimism and keenness. A strong manager should therefore harness deep-seated belief in his actions (ASTD Press, 2006). Business sociologists claim that one of the biggest fears of a human being is the fear of the future. In modern-d ay leadership, managers traffic in the future. Analysts point out that managers can overcome the fear of the future by building confidence within themselves and passing it in their followers by investing clarity. Future managers should focus on results, customers, teamwork, and advent decision making as well as problem solving (Mukherjee, 2005). Development Areas as a Future Manager Management development describes a structured process in which managers improve their competencies, knowledge, and/or skills through formal and/or informal learning systems with reference to the benefit of the individual and organizational performance. Areas where a future manager should resolve to develop include the field of experience, knowledge, career advancement, and decision-making process. In order to face future challenges as a manager, one should dedicate their time to develop skills and abilities suitable for leading other employees effectively (Cherry, Connor, & Earner-Sparks, 2011). Specific ally, when managers develop skills and abilities necessary for handling future challenges, existing pressures, and given assignments, organizations become successful. This happens because the leading managers have the relevant skills for executing tasks and responsibilities with minimum ease and time. This shows that managers should develop skills an
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Embodiment and experience - Essay Example This creates a system through which people can communicate and share huge volumes of personalised information without having to resort through several challenges and difficulties. From a Communications perspective, social media has various facades and connotations within which it can be deduced and evaluated. This include amongst other things, a view that it is a major communication tool, system and outlet that allows people to interact and also share huge volumes of information with few restrictions and limitations. This paper examines the embodiment of the social media from a communications perspective. To this end, the paper will explore the fundamental research question: Ã¢â¬Å"To what extent can social media be critiqued and understood through viral logic and what practical applications can be made of itÃ¢â¬ . The paper will thus evaluate various theories and concepts from books, journals and other secondary sources in order to provide critical answers to this fundamental research question. The concept of embodiment has to do with the presentation and identification of a given concept. Embodiment refers to giving a form to different parts and different components in order to give it a collective and holistic view and ideology. A body is a cognitive presentation of duality into a single entity (Blackman, 2008). In the modern concept, there is a tendency to identify and give a view of a given idea or conception to the mind and body (Blackman, 2008). In other words, there is the need to give a conceptual view to something that does not exist in the physical form and also give a name to something physical that has different components. Thus, philosophies seek to bring things that exist in thought into a full existence (Blackman, 2008). Therefore, the idea of a body is more of getting and putting together a view on something that exists and it involves the hard, and soft aspects of a given idea or
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Human Resource Info Systems - Assignment Example the concerned scenario, it has been determined that CastleÃ¢â¬â¢s Family Restaurant can be termed as a chain of restaurants comprising eight restaurants spread all over north California. Presently, this restaurant chain is facing an issue regarding effective human resource (HR) management. The prime focus of this discussion will be towards effective evaluation of the current management issue within this restaurant chain. Special emphasis will be provided regarding the implication of Human Resources Information System (HRIS) within the functionality of this restaurant chain to increase the efficiency of the work process and simultaneously save significant amount of time as well as money. Based on the case scenario, it can be ascertained that the name of the business which is being assisted is CastleÃ¢â¬â¢s Family Restaurant, a restaurant chain business which is established in north California. It has got multiple branches spread all over the area. The restaurant chain can be considered as a large service sector operating within that area and by taking into consideration its current level growth within United States (US) market, it can be stated that the restaurant business has been attaining gradual success and profit. These restaurant business processes have also been significantly contributing in terms of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s quarterly and annual gross domestic product (GDP) figures (National Restaurant Association, 2014). Taking about the business environment, it can be said that this restaurant chain employs a substantial workforce of around 300-340 employees who are placed in eight restaurants of the business. It serves multiple customers and thus requires effective management (Agarwal & Garg, 2012). Correspondingly, by taking into consideration the present management issue within this restaurant chain, it can be stated that the need of a centralized monitoring and control system is of paramount importance. Currently, the staff and the daily process management within
Marketing DB - Coursework Example The reason to move ahead is indeed the atmosphere that one is talking about here. The shopping experience at a retail store becomes more satisfying when the aura and aromas get manifested in the most proper sense. This means that this experience gets better if the aura and aromas are highlighted in a positive fashion Ã¢â¬â one that suggests immense room for a better retail experience for the end consumer. If the consumers are given a smell that they would like to feel good about, they will definitely visit this retail store (Frazier, 1996). Similarly, if they are welcomed by an activity which is indeed a hallmark of the retail chain, they shall do every effort to be there and thus finish their joyride as well as accomplish their shopping mission. The need is to understand what the consumers want and how they are going to achieve what they have in mind. This suggests that the retail experience needs to be defined and later on re-defined to have a cumulative stance so that the consumers are always at a benefit. The vertical management system is a channel arrangement where one of the channel members might own some of the others and bring upon them its influence which is available in the wake of better power that comes from bargain, contracts and other requirements. The implications and opportunities of this VMS channel arrangement for my company is that it will aim to better the relationships that exist amongst the channel members and allow them to grow beyond the expected returns. This will enable the channel members to bring their best to the fore and give the best price in terms of bargains and so on. Eventually the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ shopping experiences would become better and they will get the best deals and discounts which are available within the related industry. The retail format that is most appropriate for my company since it is CAD and based on a computer is an online model. This will bring immense
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The Presumption of Liberty - Assignment Example This statute ensures that parties to the contract fulfill their promises to each other as stipulated in the agreement with defaulting. Therefore, statutes of fraud do not in itself make the contract valid but serve as an evidence of the agreement between the parties hence can make the contract enforceable (Miller, Harvey & Parry 1998, p.487). It also serves to prevent one of the parties from claiming beyond what the agreement offer to them. Should one of the parties to the agreement default in the performance of his or her duties, the statues of frauds will apply to ensure that that person has discharged his or her obligation (James 2003, p.20). This is contrary to a verbal agreement whereby, due to lack of evidence one party may fail to perform the duties of the agreement and yet there are no means to prove that the party has indeed breached the agreement (Barnett 2005, p.146). Whereas most contracts can be enforced without the requirement of a statute of fraud, there are specific a greements, which must be included in a statute in order to be enforceable. This report shall explore various contracts which fall within statutes of frauds and cases that have been dealt with in the court involving the statute. In addition, the report shall focus on the impact of the statues of frauds and what would happen if parties failed to write down the terms of their contracts in cases which Ã¢â¬Å"fall within the statute.Ã¢â¬ The law requires that when individuals are making a contract they should put down all the terms of their agreement in writing in order to that no party who takes advantage of the other by failing to perform either some part of the contract or the by totally doing nothing in fulfilment of their contractual obligations (Barnett 2005, p.165).Ã
Monday, July 22, 2019
Student visas problem Essay Abstract American by no means is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s superpower. The country is very advanced in many aspects like education, technology, business and Research with prestigious learning institutions like the renowned Harvard University. For these reasons student across the globe strive to come to the US and get their education from here. In most cases the various graduates of the American colleges and Universities always stand a higher chance of getting employment into their careers. Graduates from the American educational system are highly regarded as extremely qualified and can also be integrated by employers anywhere in the world. (http://www. hothousemedia. com) Unfortunately most foreign students who come to the US on student Visas end up not pursuing education but take advantage of the various loopholes to remain in the country illegally. With the increased issue about terrorism, most terrorist have taken advantage of the student visas to gain entry into the American Soil where they pursue their own terrorist activities that endanger the lives of the Americans: for example one of the terrorist involved with the 9/11 attack is said to have been a student on such a Visa. For this particular reason the authorities in American have tightened the rules and regulations that govern the acquisition of these Visas. To acquire a student visa today is extremely difficult than before and many aspiring students are denied the opportunity to study in the US because of these restrictions. However, from the American point of view it is justifiable because the security of the country comes first before anything else. (www. unitedstatesvisas. gov). The students on the other hand are not able to understand these issues, and more or less view it as one of the hindrance of them acquiring the much sought after American Education. To acquire the student visas the American immigration department has comprehensively undertaken the task of educating the Ã¢â¬Å"would-be American studentsÃ¢â¬ of the requirements for one to acquire the visas. Unfortunately the students do not sometimes understand the requirements thus fail in acquiring these important items. The students may not also know the laws governing the student visas; the immigration rules in the US are rated as some of the strictest and specific, thereby shutting out many aspiring students. Introduction Millions of foreign students are always fighting to get a place in the American academic institutions. The quality of education in the US is highly regarded across the globe which assures anyone a very promising career development. Prior to the September 11 attack, the acquisition of the American student visa was not as difficult as it is today, which has become a nightmare not only for students but businessmen and women including tourists. (http://www. businessweek. com) Most of the challenges that the students face come from the lack of clear understanding of the rules and regulations surrounding the visas. However, the regulations that govern the visa application are extremely punitive and innocent students are left out. This paper is going to discuss some of the difficulties faced by these students. The application process The first major challenge the students face in acquiring the Visa are the various rules and regulations that one has to understand before applying. Students are required to pay a non-refundable fee of $131, which does not necessarily guarantee one of getting the Visa in the first place. This fee is very prohibitive because not so many students can be able to afford it especially bearing in mind it is never refunded if the visa application is not successful. (http://www. businessweek. com) Part of the Visa application process involves an interview with the US Embassy or consulate where further screening is done on the students to ascertain the authenticity of their application. To secure the interview posses greater challenges, this is because depending on the months that one is applying, one is bound to get appointments that might jeopardize the scheduled dates of joining the university or college. It requires the students to start making the applications very early because the appointments can be as far as one month depending on the applications made. Even after acquiring the appointment the students go through various screening processes that maybe dehumanizing especially to the innocent students. Such screening processes include frisking, and finger printing, besides the interview itself. Many students fail to acquire the visa because they fail on various technicalities that they were not clearly made aware of. Sometimes it is extremely difficult to clearly understand the criteria used to award visas, in fact most of the time one considers him/herself lucky to pass the interview. Thus it is not what one has but the mood of the interviewer that matters. There are many cases where students with almost similar backgrounds have varied outcomes on the application; while one may get the other may miss out. The student is never given the opportunity to lobby for a consideration as the word of the interviewer is regarded as final. Therefore the visa application process is always shrouded in mystery, where there are no clear guidelines on who gets the visa or who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Therefore one is not really sure that they will pass or fail. Many students after failing the rigorous tests become very discouraged and they are affected psychologically because of the high expectations they had. (Mashiur Rahaman) One of the best solutions for this problem is to educate the students on the visa application process; thereby the students are fully aware of the various pitfalls that they need to overcome and every single detail that is required for the visa process to be successful. To secure an appointment for an interview in a particular embassy is not necessarily a difficult task because all this can be done on-line. However the embassies get busy in July through August and most students may miss out because of the schedules that are fixed by the embassies. ( http://www. bridgeport. edu ) The students who fail in these interviews end up losing the $131 fee and to secure another interview they require a similar amount. This is a very big challenge and the fee should be refundable or just a part of it so that the students can secure other appointments. Students from poor families end up losing their lively-hoods yet they donÃ¢â¬â¢t acquire the much-sought document. The U. S embassies should have clear and specific guidelines on the criteria used which should never be shrouded in any form of mystery where a student can out rightly tell if they are qualified or not. (http://www. cnsnews.com). Another challenge that the students undergo in the visa application process, is the requirement that they should provide proof that they will not go to the U. S for other purposes and that they are capable of supporting themselves when they get there. The students or guidance are required to show proof of there bank accounts which are supposed to hold a certain amount of money for a period of time. Many instances students are able to finance there own education by working part time. In any case this requirement means that only the rich stand the chance of getting the American education. Because of the many restrictions students end up cheating in their documents and providing incorrect information. ( http://www. bridgeport. edu ) Once a student has successfully acquired the visa, another problem sets in; one needs to pay for the visa. The amounts are very prohibitive bearing in mind that one needs to pay for the education, airfare, accommodation, and other important materials. Therefore by the time one settles down in the U. S, if you are lucky enough you are poorer than you came in. (http://www. cnsnews. com) Once in the U.S, to ever get the opportunity to go back home to be with your family is almost next to impossible. This is because the chances of ever being accommodated back are very slim. There are many cases of students being delayed for up to 1 year when they want to come back for what is termed as security screening. Students from the Muslim world have to go through harrowing experiences for them to ever go back to the U. S after their holidays. (http://www. cnsnews. com) It is often advisable to stick in the U. S for as long as you are in college unless you want to waste time and money with the immigration. One should forget for a long while of ever going back home for up to 4 years. Students with tight family ties end up suffering a lot. (http://www. cnsnews. com) Conclusion The terrorism issue has gone a long way in making it harder for innocent students to pursue their dreams in the U. S. It is quite understandable of the strict rules that the visa application processes attract, because any loophole would be greatly exploited by the terrorists who do not discriminate in there harmful activities. Students have to bear the brunt of terrorism. It also important for the students to be fully aware of the visa requirements before starting the process, this will enable them avoid any eventual disappointment. Works Cited Fred Lucas: CNSNews. com Staff Writer: 10,000 Saudi Students on US Campuses Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from http://www. cnsnews. com/ViewNation. asp? Page=/Nation/archive/200702/NAT20070216a. html February 16, 2007 UnitedStatesVisas. gov: Studying in the U. S: Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from www. unitedstatesvisas. gov/studying. html US Visas: Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from: http://www.hothousemedia. com/etm/etmbackissues/septetm04/septetm04feature. htm BusinessWeekOnline: Foreign MBA. Students Beware: Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from http://www. businessweek. com/bschools/content/dec2001/bs2001126_8956. htm December 6, 2001 Applying for a Student Visa (useful tips):Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from http://www. bridgeport. edu/pages/2342. asp Mashiur Rahaman: Malaysia offers UK and US degrees at half the cost: Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from http://www. dailytimes. com. pk/default. asp? page=2007%5C09%5C26%5Cstory_26-9-2007_pg7_26.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Analysis of the Penan Culture in Malaysia Introduction: The Penan is one of the groups in South East Asia and they are live in Sarawak, Malaysia. There are about ten thousands Penan live in Sarawak and only about two hundred of them are nomadic Penan people left. The nomadic Penan is the people who are move from one place to other new place in every month to get new places to stay and food. The most important in Penan community make me feel proud is they are not discriminate toward female and children. All the people are equal in dividing food and sharing food. They are fair in distributing item and especially in food. The hunters hunt animals and divided meat equality to each family. The most unique I think that in Penan community is their forest sign language. Forest sign language is very important to Penan people in the forest. The Penan has their forest sign language in the forest and it is a complex forest sign language. For instance, the sign like they hunting in the forest and went to this way. So, the other Penan people will know that they went to that way. In addition, there is also a sign can know that whether the person leaving the sign is in the good mood or not. Culture in Penan community: Culture mean learned behavior in any particular society includes those ideas, techniques and habits which are passed on by one generation to another. This learned behavior or social inheritance, of any society is called its culture. It is the possession of a common culture and the ability to communicate and pass it on to others that distinguishes the human being from other animals. Human are human because they share with others a common culture, a culture which includes not only the artifacts of its living members but also those of members of past generations. Human beings are able to develop and pass on their culture by means of language. (Tony Biton, Kevin Bonnett, Philip Jones, Michelle Stanworth, Ken Sheard and Andrew Webster, 1987, pg 11 and 12). Culture in Penan has already changed especially in materials culture. They have influence by western country materials like they have wearing jeans, t-shirt, shoes, and using plastic. The Penan can get the western materials when they ex change item with the loggers. The processes lead to culture change is diffusion. Diffusion is the movement of things and ideas from one culture to another. The logging companies are the cause of the culture change in Penans culture. Loggers influence the Penan people by change item with them. The item usually change are knifes, cloths, cooking item and so on. Most of the youngest are influence by the western culture. But the eldest not really influenced by western culture, they wear traditional cloths and traditional tattoos. Besides that, they have using traditional hunting like using blowpipes. The Penan hunters usually use blowpipes to hunt wild animals. Blowpipes are the weapon that can use by them efficiency to kill wild animals. Blowpipes are made by hard wood and it got two holes at the beginning and the end of the blowpipes. The Penan hunters also have shotgun but they not often use it, because shotgun is very expensive to own one and hard to get shotgun. Short blowpipes are usually use in the short range in the forest. Blowpipes are use with the poison dart in order to kill the wild animals. Poison darts make from the milky latex in the tajem tress and warmed by fire to produce the darts. Specious darts are use to kill big animals while simple darts are use to hunt small animals. During hunting, the Penan hunters usually carry two knifes. One is long knife and the other is the shorter knife. These knifes are use to cut meat, blowpipe darts and so on. In religion, Penan people are belief in Christian since many years ago. Christian has brought into Penan communities by British since colonial time. The definitions religion includes beliefs about the existence of superhuman beings or forces, the practice of rites and rituals, the institutional forms that religion takes and the power relationships believed to be involved between human being and suprahuman beings. (Robert Van Krieken, Daphne Habibis, Philip Smith, Brett Hutchins, Michael Haralambos and Martin Holborn, 2006, pg 390). But, they still strong believe in myths and spirits in some place. For example, some rituals can expel bad luck in hunting and unsuccessful in hunting. By doing the ritual the hunters can change their hunting bad luck become good luck in hunting. Besides that, blood pacts are one of the cultures in Penan community and usually happen between the Penan leaders and neighboring tribes. In some of the cases, the leaders would shed blood onto tobacco and then it smoke together, and then consuming each other blood and preventing future conflicts. If got a breach of this pact was believed causing vomiting blood and violent death. Economy in Penan Community: The term economy, from which we get economics, comes most directly from the Old French word economie, meaning management of a household. The French adopted the term from the Latin word oeconomia, which was in turn derived from the Greek word oikonomia. Oikonomia came from the word oikonomos, which separates into oikos, meaning house, and -nomos meaning managing. (Mankiw, 2008, page 4). Economy in Penan community is based on the animals meat that they hunted, rattan make by themselves, sago and so on. Most of the item they sold is meat that their hunted in the forest to the loggers. The Penan people get their profit by selling these items to the companies. The Penan people were trade for manufactured goods like knifes, cooking item, cloths and so on. Gaharu is the one of the goods sell to other country like China, Taiwan and Japan to get more profit from it. Gaharu is for medicinal, religious purposes and making perfume. The patterns of economic subsistence are foraging and horticulture in the Penan community. Foraging is the most ancient of human subsistence patterns in foraging for wild plants and hunting wild animals. Most of the Penan hunters are hunting in a small group of relatives and friends. They have their own settlements that are not permanent which they can live in there while hunting. There are three major variations of the foraging subsistence pattern that is pedestrian, equestrian and aquatic. Penan hunters are using pedestrian while hunting wild animals. Pedestrian is diversified hunting gathering on their foot. Hunting is the common activity in Penan to obtain meat from wild animals. Government has give permit to Penan for hunting in the forest. Male are taking part in the hunting activity. Most of the animals hunt by the hunters is wild pigs. They also hunt small animals like birds, squirrels and so on. Before logging begins, many wild animals can be hunted by hunters. After logging started in their forest, wild animals become less and the animals loss their habitant. Trees are chopping down and animals are decrease. So, the hunters become harder to hunt animals where animals are becoming less. The Penan people have involved in the horticulture. Horticulture is the small scale and low intensity of farming. This subsistence pattern involved at least part time planting and tending of domesticated food plants. They have grown their own plants for food and they also keep the chickens and other relatively small domesticated animals are raised for food. Most of the foods are used by them and the surplus of meats will be sold to the loggers. They will gain profit when they sell their own meats to the logging camps. Family and Gender in Penan community: The family may then be defined as a small group of closely related people who share a distinct sense of identity and a responsibility for each other that outweighs their commitments to others, this group is commonly, but not necessarily, based on marriage, biological descent, or adoption. (James Fulcher and John Scott, 2007, pg 447). In Penan community, most common forms of the family distinguished in the literature are nuclear families and extended families. The nuclear family is usually defined as two generation unit consisting of parents and unmarried children. A distinction is generally made here between the family of origin and the family of destination. (James Fulcher and John Scott, 2007, pg 448 and 449). Nuclear families in Penan community are less if comparing to the extended family. They usually live with their parents and their children in their own hut in the forest. The extended family includes other family members. It extends vertically to include at least three generat ions that is at least grandfather and grandmothers. It extends horizontally to include in law, cousins, aunts, uncles, though how far it extends will vary and depends upon perception of the composition and boundaries of the family. (James Fulcher and John Scott, 2007, pg 448). Most of the families in Penan community are extended family. They live together in a big family with their relative. Most extended family live in bigger huts in the forest. Gender refers to differences in the way that men and women in a particular society are expected to feel, think, and behave. Thus, males are typically expected to feel, think, and behave in a masculine way, and females in a feminine way. (James Fulcher and John Scott, 2007, pg 156). There are some differences in gender roles in Penan community. For instance, males are taking part in hunting activity and rough activity. Females are most likely doing soft works like taking care their children, making rattan, finding firewood and so on. Gender roles are that specify the ways in which men and women are expected to feel, think, and behave. These prescribe not only the kinds of work that men and women are expected to do but the feelings they can express and everyday aspects of their behaviour , such as the way that they speak and dress. (James Fulcher and John Scott, 2007, pg 159). But, in Penan community, females, males and children are taking parts in making sago flour. There is no gender stratification in making sago. Logging: Sarawak forest has been logging seen 1970 years. The purpose of logging is to processed timber. The government of Sarawak has given permit to logging companies to log in the forest. It can enhance the local profits and become the first world in 2020. Most of the timber export to other country like Japan, India and Europe. The logging companies using bulldozers to clear up the forest and cutting down trees. The logging companies which include Shin Yang, Samling and Interhill are logging in Sarawak. The company workers usually live in the houses that they have build when they logging. The problem face by Penan is logging in the jungle where they live. Logging can cause many problems toward Penan people. Penan are very hard to live in the jungle where are many logger are logging in their habitant. The changes in the jungle will make them fill difficult to stay at the jungle. The change in the sound of the machines chop trees, the light in the jungle become brighter because of less trees and the temperature become higher than before. Besides that, Penan also facing problems like hard to hunt animals in the jungle where logging activities are started. All the animals run away from the jungle and animals are dying during logging. Penan also hard to get medical plants and food when many trees are destroys by the logging companies. The fruits tress and the sago palm become less after logging has started in Penans forest. So, Penan people feel difficulty in getting the food and sago. The water in the river become mudding when raining. The mud from the trees has been chop ping down. The Penan people cannot get clean water from the river. Social change and development: Social change is about change in the nature, social institution, social behaviour or social relations of a society, or other social structures. It also can also be said as any event or action affects a group of individuals that have shared values or characteristics. The factors that lead to social change are physical environment and poverty. Physical environment refers to the trees in the forest have been cut down by logging companies and the Penan people have to face the new change in their habitants. They are not able to adapt the new life. This is because some of the changes like temperature, light and sound in the jungle have been changes. The dirty water in the river is also one of the social changes. They have to get use to it. Poverty is also one of the factors that lead to social changes. Logging can cause them into poverty. This is because they have less wild animals to hunt and less meat to sell to people. Less trees in the forest making them hard to find fruits in the fore st and it is hard to make rattan when logging started. Furthermore, oil palm plantations have forced them into poverty. There is nothing left for them anymore. The loss of their forests, the Penan is force to poverty and suffers illness because of not enough foods and polluted water. The government has promises to give development to Penan but until now there is no development in their community. Besides that, the Penan also not trust the government and they also do not want development. The government also does not understand why Penan does not want development. The logging companies have given the Penan people the broken and abundant house that the logger had made during logging. So, the Penan people do not feel there has been development in their community. According to Wallerstein (1991), development simply means more, which is a capitalist definition referring to the accumulation of wealth and as a result of this accumulation, one area will remain poor as a result of exploitation by the rich (powerful). Conclusion: The Penan was live in Sarawak since many years ago and there are no troubles in their community. After logging companies come to their forest cutting down the trees and making the Penan suffer from many problems. Logging makes changes in Penans culture, their social, development, economy and so on. In my opinion, the companies should stop logging from destroying the forest and the Penan habitant. Logging will also cause to global warming and it will create disaster toward Penan people. The government also should be more careful in making decision in timber industry. The government must be more consider about the Penan feeling when logging in their forest. Reference: Tony Bilton, Kevin Bonnett, Philip Jones, Michelle Stanworth, Ken Sheard and Andrew Webster (1987), Introductory sociology, second edition, The Macmillan Press LTD, London. James Fulcher, John Scott (2007), Sociology, third edition, Oxford. N. Gregory Mankiw (2008), Principles of Economics, Fifth edition, South Western Cengage Learning. Robert Van Krieken, Daphne Habibis, Philip Smith, Brett Hutchins, Michael Haralambos and Martin Holborn (2006), Sociology Themes and Perspectives, third edition, Longman. James H. McDonald (2002), The Applied Anthropology Reader, Allyn And Bacon.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Johnson and Johnson Global Business In this report, we are using Johnson Johnson as the company for our strategic global business solutions project report. Introduction is formed as the brief background of Johnson Johnson. The focus of this report will be placed on JJs subsidiary Johnson Johnson, Group of Consumer Companies, Inc. Johnson Johnson. We will be focusing and relating this report on the baby product line of Johnson Johnson. The strategic initiatives of Johnson Johnsons skills, strategy, staff, structure, system and shared values will be discussed and examined in this report. We looked into their company functions so as to better understand them to enable effective decision makings. A political economic analysis is conducted to provide global risk insights for Johnson Johnson that is beneficial to JJ manage those risks as potential and risk. In relation to Johnson Johnson `s baby care products, Porter`s forces model is used to analyze the competitive advantage of the firm. One of the key understandings is that the middle-high rivalry is present with less number of competitors on Baby Care product line from competitor like California Baby, Simple. SWOT analysis show that Johnson Johnson holds strong competitive advantages after comparing its pros and cons despite of a few disadvantages of global standardization strategy. The growth strategy of Johnson Johnson will be selected based on both internal a nd external environment factor for the three years plan. These diagnoses are in reference to the SWOT analysis based on the company resources assets, intellectual property, and people. Lastly, the modes of entry will be affected by the several internal factors in this report. It comprises of internal requirement, technology know-how, management know-how as well as pressure for cost reduction. The recommendation part would provide several suggestions for the improvement of Johnson Johnson through the organization structure and Human Resource Management. Introduction We have chosen to work on Johnson and Johnson (JJ) for our strategic global business solutions project report for it is a global American pharmaceutical, medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturer founded in 1886. With more than 250 subsidiary companies located in 57 countries around the world and having its products sold in over 175 countries, JJ is a listed company evident with its listing among Fortune 500 and registering its stock with NASDAQ (NYSE: JNJ). With a diverse range of products sold in global markets, JJ adopted the business strategy of global standardization whereby there is limited customization needed for its products for focus is placed on having customers recognise and identify JJ as a household brand. Focus of this report will be placed on JJs subsidiary Johnson Johnson, Group of Consumer Companies, Inc. Strategic Initiative of Johnson Johnson Skills As Johnson Johnson is a global manufacturer with many subsidiaries on a global scale, JJ would hire its employees through a stringent process of selection and focus on ones performance. This implies that JJ recruits people of experience and ability with a global mindset hires third-country national (TCN), indicating that recruitment of people is mainly dependent on being consistent with JJs organizational structure. Strategy With the objective of market growth and maximizing profits in order to be responsible to their stockholders, JJ adopted the business strategy of global standardization. Choice of global standardization strategy is because JJs focus is placed on lowering costs and that there is limited need for customization of products for it generally the same other than slight changes in the products packaging. Staff The employees of JJ can be said to be well motivated to work for JJ has provided their staff with many incentives ranging from personal to performance benefits (i.e. annual incentive bonus, long-term incentive awards, and severance benefits). As JJ have high expectations on their employees, JJ sends their staff on regular employee training that clocks an average of 8 hours or more yearly (i.e. leadership development and management education in fields like finance and marketing). JJ also makes sure that their employees are motivated by giving them the right to voice ones opinion on company issues through JJs Credo survey. Structure JJs organizational structure is dictated by its corporate strategy. JJ initially adopted a decentralized approach to management but in the early 1900s, changed it to a more standardized approach for JJs top executives noticed that their subsidiaries are not well-positioned on a global platform to serve customers directly. The change in corporate management allowed JJ to mitigate limitations posed by the decentralization approach. One instance would be JJ having categorized all subsidiaries into three categories namely, consumer, pharmaceutical and professional. The chairman of each category is given the responsibility of identifying opportunities for leveraging services and expertise across companies in every market and the franchise managers assigned the responsibility of coordinating cross-company sales of a family of products (e.g. baby care products in US, France, Australia). The centralized management approach benefits JJ for it gives JJs top management a better view of its glob al operations and are able to effectively manage and integrate its global operations. This led to the success of JJ in being globally effective in terms of operations for cost of production is lowered in terms of reducing redundancies and duplications during the processing and manufacturing process. Systems In the business of health care, Johnson Johnson is inspired and united by a common purpose: to care for the health and well-being of the people they serve around the world. Caring drives the people of Johnson Johnson in their aim to make the world a better and healthier place through everything that they do. It is core to their business strategy and initiatives, the programs and partnerships which they build, the positions that they take on public policy issues, and their care for the environment. As the company moves forward, it continues to push the innovation envelope as coordinated activities under the centralized control, infusing superior technology and ingenuity into every product they make and every project which the company undertakes. The procedure of the JJ functions as a system in which build from within organization, as 95% of their people start at entry level and then progress and prosper throughout the organization. This not only creates many wonderful opportunities to grow and advance, it creates a special camaraderie among fellow JJers, many of whom came up through the ranks together. Johnson Johnson came up with this credo which speaks about their mission statements, views and their pledges to the customers and society. Robert Wood Johnson, former chairman from 1932 to 1963 and a member of the Companys founding family, crafted Our Credo himself in 1943, just before Johnson Johnson became a publicly traded company. This was long before anyone ever heard the term corporate social responsibility. WILLIAMC.WELDON is the chairman, Board of Directors, and Chief Executive Officer of Johnson Johnson. He takes pride in the organization work procedures and describe their operation of their day-to-day work is about their response to the unmet needs of their patients and customers and also their response to the needs of their colleagues; their response to supporting the global communities in which they live and work; finally, their response to the call for research and innovation in health care. Style The parent company of Johnson Johnson which is Procter Gamble (PG) has been pioneering products in nearly 50 different categories and their baby product line will be the function in which this report will be focusing on. As the company moves forward, it continues to push the innovation envelope every day, infusing superior technology and ingenuity into every product they make and every project which the company undertakes. The procedure of the JJ functions as a system in which build from within organization, as 95% of their people start at entry level and then progress and prosper throughout the organization. This not only creates many wonderful opportunities to grow and advance, it creates a special camaraderie among fellow JJers, many of whom came up through the ranks together. This also explains why their hiring process is so rigorous. JJ `s system is as such that they are not just offering a job, they expect you to grow into one of their future leaders. From day one youll help develop or support exciting brands you know while working on projects that have a direct impact on their global, $61.9 billion sales in 2009. Shared Values Johnson Johnson`s management style of helping to shape and define what health and well-being means in everyday lives. Their products, services, ideas and giving now touch the lives of at least one billion people every day. They credit their strength and endurance to a consistent approach to managing their business, and to the character of their people. They are guided in everything they do by their Credo, a management document authored more than 60 years ago by Robert Wood Johnson, former chairman from 1932 to 1963, and by four strategic principles. Their company style is deeply rooted in their Credo and deeply in filtered into their employees and leaders. Johnson Johnson `s system is such that their overarching philosophy which guides their business is their Credo, a deeply held set of values that have served as the strategic and moral compass for generations of Johnson Johnson leaders and employees. Above all, their Credo challenges them to put the needs and well-being of the people they serve first. It also speaks to the responsibilities they have to their employees, to the communities in which we live and work and the world community, and to our shareholders. They believe their Credo is a blueprint for long-term growth and sustainability thats as relevant today as when it was written. The company behavioral style is that their values embodied in their Credo guide the actions of the people of the Johnson Johnson Family of Companies at all levels and in all parts of the world. They have done so for more than 60 years. These Credo values extend to their accounting and financial reporting responsibilities. Their management is responsible for timely, accurate, reliable and objective financial statements and related information. As such: They maintain a well-designed system of internal accounting controls. They encourage strong and effective corporate governance from their Board of Directors. They continuously review their business results and strategic choices. They focus on financial stewardship. Synergistic teams All of the above of Johnson Johnson `s skills, strategy, staff, structure, system, staff and shared value formed together and worked in cohesively to form a synergistic team of workforce that oversee the entire operation from sourcing materials ,production lines ,manufacturing to research and development (RD). It is seen as that a synergy is the energy or force created by the working together of various parts or processes. In Johnson Johnson, the baby care products are the result of synergy and quality reassurance as promise by the company. External Environment Environment cannot be controlled; therefore we should analyze the environment first then indicate the strategy that also reflects the organization structure subsequently. Political Economy Analysis The political economy of a nation defines the forms of interdependence amongst the political, economic, and legal systems, and also reflects they interact and influence each other. Political systems The system of government in a nation defined as political system which divided the 200 plus world entities into 2 dimensions that include the degree of collectivism versus individualism and the degree of democracy versus totalitarianism. More practically, individuals would be tied together to achieve the common or collective goals in the high context country, like South Korea, Japan, those people focus on the benefits of society and long-term relationship; individualism means democratic political systems and free market economies like Americans have free rights to vote in election. Myanmar, North Korea act as the totalitarianism that government absolutely controlled by one person or political party. Whereas, China exist the grey area that it has been a move toward greater individual free market economies, but the government is still a totalitarian dictatorship. If the political systems are high stable, the company would be decentralized; otherwise, the company would concentrate in the low stable situation. Although the political systems in say Japan (i.e. change in 3 prime ministers since 2007) is relatively unstable as compared to that of other Asian countries like Singapore, the Japanese government is more open in terms of local market entrance of multinational companies. Economic systems In market economy, production is determined by the interaction of demand and supply; besides, the government encourages free and fair competition between private producers, the representatives of governments like the Great Britain, US and France. The objective of command economy is the good of society; all businesses are state owned in command economy, such as Thailand, South Korea, and Indonesia. India is the typical example of mixed economy in which certain sectors of the economy are left to private ownership and free market mechanisms while other sectors have state significant ownership and government planning. The company would decentralize in the consistent economy system or concentrate in the inconsistent economy system. Legal systems For a business that operates globally, understanding the different legal systems play an important role of the process. Legal aspects help to facilitate business operations so therefore it is very crucial and a necessity for international business operators to have an understanding of the different legal systems around the world. Companies must take into consideration the legal structures of the country in which they operate in. Globalization breaks down barriers between nations and bring nation together in a global platform. But increasing investment among nations also makes it more difficult for those in different cultures to understand the rules of other countries. It is important to follow the legal system of the country in which business is conducted or the government has the right to have legal actions taken should laws be not comply. International Business Laws Businesses operate in a world in which the laws of different governments and judicial systems might conflict as they originated from different cultures. It is therefore necessary to have a basic knowledge of the legal system and also understand how does business law impacts commerce in the companys own country and overseas. The impacts of international business on business law facilitate the inclusion of standards in their company regulations or operations that address these tricky and complex issues. Social cultural environment According to Geert Hofstede Cultural Theory, the global social culture roughly classify as 4 dimensions which considered as costs. Individualism versus Collectivism The individualism and individual achievement is common in the Western Countries, both positive and negative implementation in individualism. The positive side is showed in competition between individuals rather than collective groups and the person get pay-for-performance motivation to compete within organization especially in the dynamism of US economy that encouraged person to take chances and tried new things with unique ideas (i.e. Steve Jobs). However, the individualists just focus task-based, they cannot develop a strong and long-term relationship with others which is the advantage of collectivism. US, Canada Australia is the classical individualist representatives that are different from Asia (i.e. South Korea, China) act as collectivists. Power Distance The degree of acceptance of hierarchy or inequality exists among the organization, the higher power distance (i.e. Japan, Vietnam) reflect in the decision making by the seniorities and reward as the status, position and experiences; in contrast, the decision making and authority took by the task representative and pay-for-performance reward represented in low power distance culture like Denmark and UK. Uncertainty Avoidance The degree of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguous situation, the low uncertainty avoidance reflects the high risk taker and adaptability of new things (i.e. Australia, Singapore); the high uncertainty displayed the low tolerance for uncertainty issues like France and Italy, those countries need the structured organization or rules to obey so that French and Italians are difficult to overcome the culture shock when they sent as expatriate managers. Masculinity versus Femininity Whether the differences of work in gender roles accepted in society, Japan and China should be masculine society; the jobs of gender are distinct and form a male dominant society and person more focus on financial and material possessions. On the other hand, gender roles are overlapping in the femininity country, such as Thailand and Finland, people in those countries focus more on quality of life. Therefore, in the femininity countries, the purchasing power of lifestyle is relatively high which point out an appealing way to Johnson Johnson develop. Overall analysis Those external environments provide global risk insights for Johnson Johnson that is beneficial to JJ manage those risks as potential and risk to take advantage of the relative international business strategy to form and adapt organization structure in the long-term. Competitive Advantages Posters Five Forces Degree of Rivalry The middle-high rivalry is present with less number of competitors on Baby Care product line, like California Baby, Simple; but Johnson Johnson is dominant in the Baby Care industry and the economies of scale so that the firm reflects less intense competition. The cost of competitive advantage and promotions are relatively high, like the advertising and discounts; additionally, JJ has over hundreds history and good image of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) result them remain competitive rather than leave the industry. Next, the high rate of growth display the middle-high competitive situation overall in the industry. Threat of new entrants The threats of new entrants should be low despite of low barriers of entry in the lights of low costs of set-up. The brand equity of JJ is relatively high and it has great impacts in the industry so that a large number of suppliers prefer to sign contracts with it rather than the new entrants that benefit for enhancing suppliers brand and engaging more profits, Lafes Body Care is an example of new entrant who launch a new baby care product line in recent years. In addition to the switching costs for customers, customers are keen on the brand with quality guarantee using for baby or not the less discrepancy of prices. Threat of substitutes Some baby care products from say Pigeon Corporation and Drapolene are suggested by doctors (i.e. responsible to babies), but lack in brand awareness recognized by customers as renowned brands and those products are not easier to buy or package of those products are not portable for customers to bring; compared with them, Johnson Johnson baby care products differ from they could be bought in almost of all supermarkets under the world-wide distribution channels and be convenient to carry about. Hence, threats of substitutes should be low. Power of Buyers There are a lot of alternatives for customers contribute to the high bargaining power of customers, especially for the price-sensitive customers, who are prefer to the high-quality products with the lower costs in the traditional theory research. However, JJs Baby Care products are considered as the essential healthy pharmacy products for baby by an amount of loyal customers. All in all, the bargaining power of customers should be low-to-middle as its healthy baby brand image formed in customers mind around the world, even the adult females prefer to but baby products to care their skins. Power of Suppliers There are thousands of suppliers to provide the materials, goods and services that allow JJ Family of Companies to manufacture products, supply offices and other facilities to service customers around the world. JJ committed to working with small and diverse suppliers in terms of their abilities to support its long-run growth objectives and add value to its business through providing the innovative solutions to their marketing, manufacturing and RD efforts. Even though the various inputs from the suppliers, the competitive situations also exist among suppliers and large amount of substitute inputs contribute to the low power of suppliers. Financial environment Analysis on JJs operation results is essential for it allows its stakeholders to gain an insight on how JJ is performing on the global platform and whether the management strategy employed needs to be consistent or changed according to future market projections. Looking at JJs net sales figures in the last 5 years (Appendix 1), gathered from JJs 2009 annual report, we see a generally consistent growth in its net sales. Though there is a dip in worldwide sales figure of 2.9% ($61.9 billion) from 2008, this can be accounted with JJs spending on research and development ($7 billion) as well as acquisitions and collaborations. Although this will cause a reduction in JJs sales margin, it will benefit the organization in the long-run whereby profits will be reaped upon returns on investment. Currently, JJ is expanding its operations in the BRIC countries (i.e. Brazil, Russia, India, and China) as well as other fast-developing markets. This should be a continued project of JJ for at least the next 3 years to maximize its profits and increase its global market share. This is inline with JJs organizational vision drive superior business results and sustainable competitive advantage. Internal Environment Value Chain JJs corporate vision, to maximise the global power of diversity and inclusion to drive superior business results and sustainable competitive advantage is in line with its corporate objective of profit and growth. Both JJs vision and focus has direct implication on its corporate structure. This is reflected upon the process within JJs value-chain. In terms of JJs organizational structure, Human resource management (HRM) plays a vital role in the direct success of JJ as an organization for it is the people, most valued asset, that contribute to achieving the goals and objectives of JJ. At present, JJ hires experienced and capable leaders to bring the organization to greater heights and JJ does not stop there. JJ provides all top executives in training which include leadership development and management education in fields like finance and marketing. JJ prioritizes on the professional development of every employee for JJ believe that they are capable in developing leaders within the organization by exposing them to diverse fields and giving employees heavier responsibilities to assess their ability. As mentioned above where staff motivation is important, we as consultants believe that JJ should continue to train their employees and appraise the performance of employees in the next three years. This is so that JJ would be able to make better use of their employees capabilities and talents and this will benefit the organization in the long-run when employees are loyal to JJ. Focusing on JJs consumer goods of baby products, the in-bound logistics ties in with operations before linking with outbound logistics, sales marketing and finally, providing businesses and consumers with service. JJs in-bound logistics would include the purchasing of raw materials needed for the manufacturing of baby products and storing the raw materials in various designated warehouses. Operations will then occur whereby factory employees would have to work along a production belt with the help of machines and maintain quality checks as well as bottling of baby products. JJ would then distribute the ready products into containers for shipment, in allocated warehouses or directly to retailers and distributors. To aid JJs employees in convenient dispersal of information to sales staff, they have made use of MultiAid to resolve all marketing resource management needs. This increases JJs operational efficiency and gives the organization a head start on asset management for product ima ge, captured data and distribution to retail trade communities is readily accessible to employees with one click on the computer system. With regards to sales and marketing, JJ advertises by relating consumers with real-life scenario whereby a mother bathes her baby with JJs baby products and having the statement of products for the ones you love. There are two types of service provided by JJ business to business (B2B) and business to consumer (B2C). JJ provides its business partners and suppliers with business opportunities. This means that the degree of success experienced by JJ has direct impact and will benefit companies that do business with JJ. Consumers of JJ are exposed to gathering useful and relevant information when having purchased JJ baby products for JJ has formed a website (i.e.BabyCentre.com) and a online Baby Care Library to increase the closeness in customer interaction. SWOT Analysis Strengths (Internal) Weaknesses (Internal) Abundant financial resources Strong brand name Proprietary technology Respected brand image Wide product lines Economies of scale Committed employees Superior product quality Better marketing skills Good distribution skills Low customization Lack of flexibility Opportunities (External) Threats (External) Opening of foreign markets Rapid market growth Brand switching Demographic shifts Low barriers to entry Economic downturn Introduction of new substitutes products Rival firms adopting new strategies Strengths Johnson Johnson is a well-known healthcare brand which ranks No. 1 within the industry under one decade of its historical development with a wide variety of skincare products and superior product quality. Abundant financial resources are exploited by the RD department to employ the committed staff for creating and even innovating the hygiene products through proprietary technology and build up the respected brand image. Besides, it focus on product leadership excel at product development and professional skills so that it can offer customers the best products in the industry. As the facts show that, JJ expanded internationally around the world, like Asia (Singapore, China) that triggered by the better marketing skills. Additionally, the good world-wide distribution skills due to its global standardization strategy that allow JJ to generate great market shares by cost reduction that come from economies of scale and fast product development what based on stable relationship with local distribution agents and its respected brand image as well as superior product like baby care mainly. Weaknesses Global standardization is the main international business strategy to control cost but this also is its drawback that results in the low customization. In addition to the world-wide product structure, the managers lack of flexibility to face the challenge of changes in local markets. Opportunities In order to bring along the development of local economy, most of countries welcomes the international companies introduce their products to diversify the local economy. The increasing attentions of baby nurturance and its brand image prompt customers to purchase its products and grow rapidly in the global new markets. There is an opportunity to generate more market shares and enhance its brand image in the long-term in the lights of the rise in global demographic population reach to 7 billion that data collected from statistics of 2011, China and India act as the representatives; moreover, the superior product quality of JJ is the critical to attract customers switching from other brands. Threats JJ faces the threats of the low barriers to entry due to the low cost of set-up, and the proprietary product differences will be difficult to protect when the barriers are reduced so that the customers would switch to other brands more possibly. Another threat reflected by the economic downturn, JJ is difficult to manage the exchange rate risk under the global standardization strategy. Most important, JJ would be forced to stay at the passive threat that the customers would be attracted by its competitors and sales would be declined if rivalries adopting the new strategies. Outcome of SWOT Matrix Generally, Johnson Johnson holds strong competitive advantages after compare its pros and cons despite of few disadvantages of global standardization strategy. In another angle, JJ is able to switch the threats to opportunities in the lights of its calculus-based capability and resources. Growth Strategies adopted by Johnson Johnson There are both internal and external environments to be carefully evaluated when planning for a three years growth strategy plan for Johnson Johnson as what happen externally and internally will affect the company. These diagnoses are in reference to the SWOT analysis based on the company resources assets, intellectual property, and people. With careful consideration and by selecting market penetration growth strategy for a three year period, it will help them to gain more market shares through promotion and advertising from their strong marketing teams. Before planned the growth strategies, the firm should generate a lot of information about if the company is selling new, existing or emerging products in a new or existing market. From the diagnosis of the Porter`s model, understanding that the threats of new entrants are low and also credited to the high brand equity of Johnson Johnson, market penetration growth strategy defined by Ansoff is selected in the lights of situation that involves neither new markets nor new products, are forced to grow through this growth strategy. It is a strategy that is designed to give the business a greater percentage of market shares. Market penetration occurs when a company enters/penetrates a market with current products. This type of strategy usually seeks to gain a compet