Wednesday, December 25, 2019
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY An oft-heard phrase in education has become both a directive and a duty for educators: Ã¢â¬Å"We must meet students where they are.Ã¢â¬ This phrase refers to an obligation to meet studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs by matching instructional methods to their levels and preferences. In this era of rapid technological innovation and change, many students have embraced the use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) such as Facebook and spend much of their time in its virtual spaces. Despite its popularity with college students, it is unclear if university faculty educators feel that SNSs are appropriate places to go to meet their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. This study seeks to explore this question by comparing faculty and students as to theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦211). While many SNSs are in the early stages of development, the adoption of the concept has been rapid. The study proposed here focuses specifically on the adoption of SNSs by students and faculty in higher education. Though SNSs have attained remarkable popularity, Facebook has become the most popular, particularly among people of ages 17 to 25 (Melber, 2008). Recent studies indicate that the number of older users is increasing rapidly (Kirkpatrick, 2009), but currently more than 90% of college students have a Facebook account (Haywoode, 2010; Loveland, 2011). Thus, the substantial number of college students using this technology has compelled many educators to wonder if there are potential benefits for the use of Facebook to support education. According to Santovex (2006), colleges and universities can use Facebook to Ã¢â¬Å"engage students academically and build relationships with facultyÃ¢â¬ (p. 5). As retention has become a focal point for many universities, several studies have suggested methods for universities to manage retention more effectively. John N. Gardner, founder and senior fellow of the National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transitions, has visited many campuses, proposing to student-affairs professionals that involvement and sense of connectedness
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Merriem Webster Dictionary defines ethics as the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group; a guiding philosophy (Ethic). Moral concepts governing a groups behavior cannot Ã¢â¬Å"be examined and understood apart from their history (MacIntyre, 1). Behavior that is seen as good and bad is depicted in ancient literature and poems. Iliad occurs during the Trojan War, circa 500 BC. Socrates (circa 470/469 Ã¢â¬â 399 BC) is known as one of the founders of modern philosophy; the Socratic Method is a tool used to foster understanding and resolution of moral and ethical concerns. The Dead Sea Scrolls which form much of the foundation of The Bible date as far back as 408 BC. The development of moral concepts and ethical behavior is a work inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The document parallels the thought process of the 1920s Ã¢â¬Å"that character was a significant factor in determining right actionÃ¢â¬ (Epstein and Turner, 2015). The first official Code of Ethics for Nurse s in the United States was implemented in 1950 and detailed 17 provisions of anticipated performance amongst the nursing profession. The current code has been modified and adapted several times so as to keep up with the demands of society and now contains 9 general provisions along with subdivisions. The expectation that nurses collaborate with other professions and treat all individuals with reverence can be found speckled throughout the code. Provision 1 states Ã¢â¬Å"the nurse practice with compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth, and unique attributes of every person.Ã¢â¬ Provision 1.5 elaborates on Ã¢â¬Å"Relationships with Colleagues and OthersÃ¢â¬ by asserting Ã¢â¬Å"respect for persons extends to all individuals with whom the nurse interactsÃ¢â¬ (ANA, 2015). Provision 2.3 mandates that Ã¢â¬Å"the complexity of health care requires collaborative effort that has the strong support and active participation of all health professions [and] nurses should foster collaborative planningÃ¢â¬ (ANA, 2015). Provision 3.5 describes a chain of command for intervening and acting on the practices of others within the healthcare team that Ã¢â¬Å"place the rights or best interests of the patient in jeopardyÃ¢â¬ beginning with the individual responsible. Finally, Provision 8 reads, Ã¢â¬Å"The nurse collaborates with
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Social Marketing for Developing Positive Attitude. Answer: Introduction This report is basically discussed about the communication plan of a non-profit organization. The report will mainly cover the services of organization with the literature support, objective of the campaign, target market, SWOT analysis, marketing mix and attention message for the customers. For the discussion, an Australian non-profit organization named Starlight Chldrens foundation has been taken. The topic of discussion is to Challenge a negative behavior or encourage a positive behavior towards the issue of homelessness. This non-profit organization helps and provides services to the homeless people. The organization helps the young people who are homeless or going to be homeless. It has been seen that the homelessness is becoming serious issue day by day in the Australian society. The reason of being homeless is domestic violence and family breakdown. It is impacting the lives of young people as they are being violent and losing their physical and mental health status. So, there is the need to address this issue for the good outcome in the future (Starlight Chldrens foundation, 2016). Literature support The non-profit organization can be understood as the type of organization which operates for the public interest in the society and enjoys the tax-free incentives in the market. Such kind of organizations spends their earnings on the wellbeing of the society and the people. They do not distribute their earnings among the people. There is the need of the organization like Starlight Chldrens foundation in the country as there are many critical situations in the society. The organization targets homeless people because homelessness is the serious issue in the Australian society now days. This situation is getting worse in the society as there is the lack of suitable housing for young people. The young people having the age of 12 to 14 are being homeless due to family breakdown and domestic violence. As the result, they are facing many issues such as disconnection with the family or friends, absence of feeling of security in the mind, and loss of basic requirements i.e. shelter, safety a nd food etc. People have to change their attitude towards their livings to prevent form the issue of homeless. It has been observed in a survey that the problem of homelessness is getting worse in 2016 as compared to last 20 years (Ritchie Weinberg, 2000). For this manner, organization is providing outreach services to those youth who have no homes. This kind of organization has significance in the society as it works for the interest of the public by acting as charity. Basically, it can be said about the non-profit organization that the organization that does not have the aim to make any kind of profit and serves for the public interest. The only aim of such kind of organization is the welfare of the society (Vessenes, 2003). The program/campaign focus The organization Starlight Chldrens foundation operates in the society same as its name. The organization helps those people who have no home. The organization provides many services to improve the lives of helpless people. Organization provides various services such as community ownership, mentoring, mobile youth outreach and wellbeing of the people in the society. The objective of the organization is to resolve family conflicts and remove the economic and financial burden from the people by the effective services (Alam, 2014). Based on the current situation of the society, there is the need to create the awareness about the negative behavior among the people. It is important for the people to understand that due to conflicts in the home and family breakdowns, children are facing negative impact. So, Starlight Chldrens foundation needs to conduct a communication campaign through social media. Today, almost every person is using social media. Providing message by the social media such as Facebook and Twitter, organization will be able to generate a safe environment for the children (Armstrong, Kotler, Harker, Brennan, 2012). SWOT analysis SWOT analysis of non-profit organization is similar like the analysis of other organizations. There are many factors in the non-profit organization such as goodwill, helping staff, and fundraising that other organizations do not have. A non-profit organization shuld do SWOT analysis at the time of planning of communication campaign (Andreasen Kotler, 2003). The SWOT analysis of Starlight Chldrens foundation is as follows: One of the big strength the organization has is the tax exemption. The organization provides the services such as mobile outreach, mentoring etc, in which the customers do not pay and sales tax and service tax. Along with this, there are very helping staff in the stores of the organization. They are very helping in providing better quality of services to the needed people. So, helpful staff is very crucial part of the organization. Starlight Chldrens foundation always takes advantage by these factors as various types of employees are always ready to help the society (Basil, 2011). There is one of the weaknesses that the Starlight Chldrens foundation has. The weakness is that the organization hardly includes its expenses with revenue. So, there can be the organization related to budget. Along with this, Starlight Chldrens foundation needs more support from the government and charity. Further, there is limited number of staff so; it can be the cause of problem in maintaining the programs efficiently. Charity and the government support can be the opportunity for the organization to conduct the program. But it is very critical for the organization to find those donations and apply them. Along with this, collaboration with the other organization can be the better opportunity for the organization to create the awareness about the issues in the society. With this, the use of social media will also be useful for the organization. Sometimes, non-profit organization has to face many economic crises because they are dependent on the charity and government support. So, the stores of Starlight Chldrens foundation have to face many difficulties to operate the business. The organization should not be dependent on the support of others as future is uncertain. A small disgrace can damage the operations of the organization. There is one more threat of high poverty in the society (Basil, Deshpande, Runte, 2008). Appropriate target market Target market is the crucial factor in the creating communication message. Selecting appropriate target market would be helpful for the organization to understand the interests, needs, taste and hobbies of the customers. In case of Starlight Chldrens foundation, it is a non-profit organization. Non-profit organization does not have particular customers so; it has to find out the people in the society who want need. The organization will basically target the youth of the Australian society. Homeless is the serious issue in the community. So, the organization will mainly focus on young people having the age of 12 to 25. The organization will fulfill the basic requirements such as home, food and security. Along with this, the adults who are using social media also will be the target audience of the organization (Williamson, 2009). The Starlight Chldrens foundation is targeting the youth in the society. The main reason of targeting the youth is that they are the main pillar of the society. They need proper and right direction so that they would be able to live their lives without any pressure. So, the organization has the aim to provide the services so that they can grow in their lives with the safe and bright future. Along with this, consumers have psychological mindset. They always give preference to those services, in which they find stability. So, the organization will try to provide those services by which they will get stability in terms of home, shelter and basic requirements (Liao, Foreman, Sargeant, 2001). Product refers to those tangible ideas that can be provided by the company to help the customers. In the case of Starlight Chldrens foundation, the company is providing services to the people instead of products. The services are for the young people who are feeling helpless in the society due to being homeless. By providing shelter and basic necessities, organization will serve human beings in the society in Australia. Price should be such which can be afford by the target audience. In the case of profit organization, it can be in terms of money such as dollar or pound. But, in case of non-profit organization, it requires some intangible sources such as efforts, time, and engagement with the organization because the aim of the campaign is to increase the awareness about the issues of homelessness among the society. The campaign of the organization Starlight Chldrens foundation is about creating awareness with the social media so; it requires the time and effort from the target audience (Hill, Provost Volinsky, 2006). Place /Distribution It is clear that the organization Starlight Chldrens foundation is conducting a campaign for the society of Australia so that the children can get bright future. The organization will chose social media platform for the distribution of the information. Social media tool will be effective platform for the organization to create awareness about the issues that children are facing (Brace-Govan, Brady, Brennan Conduit, 2011). Online media can be used as the promotional platform for the campaign as the online marketing is the most popular tool for the marketing. It is assumed that the social media such as Youtube, facebook and Twitter will be used in the campaign. It is estimated that 55% market will be covered by Facebook, 22% market will be covered by Youtube and 22% will be covered by Twitter (Kaplan, Andreas Haenlein, 2010). In the message, the information regarding campaign will be provided. For the safe and secure future of the children, there is the need to create effective communication message for the target audiences. The aim of the organization is to create the awareness about the issues of homelessness among the target audience. The campaign will have a unique message i.e. encourage a positive behavior (providing safe environment to children). In this campaign, the message will be send to the target customers by various tools such as email, facebook, and Twitter. Along with this, public relations will also be used to get the feedback about the campaign (Courtney, 2002). Evaluate the effectiveness of message The organization Starlight Chldrens foundation provides services to the society as the organization knows that once the people perceive the services good, they will always give preference to the services of the organization. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign by proper monitoring. By monitoring before campaign, mid of the campaign and after campaign, organization will be able to analyze the effectiveness of the campaign process. By the feedback from the customers, and direct talk with the people organization will be able to know that campaign is successful in its campaign objective or not (Kerr Patti, 2002). Conclusion This report is basically a communication plan for encouraging positive behavior towards the issue of homelessness in Australia. From the analysis, it has been observed that non-profit organization has importance in the society as it works for the interest of the public by acting as charity. Such kind of organizations spends their earnings on the wellbeing of the society and the people. They do not distribute their earnings among the people. So, there is the need of the organization like Starlight Chldrens foundation in the country as there are many critical situations in the society. References Alam, M.M., (2014). Market Orientation and Innovation: Are They Related Concepts: International Journal of Trends in Economics Management and Technology. 3(6). pp. 1721. Andreasen, A.R. Kotler, P., (2003). Strategic Marketing for Non-profit Organizations. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M., Brennan, R., (2012). Marketing : An Introduction. Pearson Prentice-Hall, London, London Basil, D.Z, Deshpande, S. Runte, M., (2008). The Impact of Cause-related Marketing on Nonprofit Organizations: International Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference. University of Wollongong Basil, M., (2011). Marketing and social enterprises: implications for social marketing: Journal of Social Marketing. 5(4), pp.285 306 Brace-Govan, J., Brady, E., Brennan, L., Conduit, J., (2011). Market Orientation and marketing in nonprofit organisations Indications for fundraising from Victoria: International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 16(1). pp. 8498. Courtney, R. (2002). Strategic Management for Voluntary and Non-profit Organisations. UK: Routledge Kerr Patti, (2002). Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC): Where to from here. Retrieved on 6th January 2017 from https://www.anzmac.org/conference_archive/2002/papers/pdfs/p296_kerr.pdf Liao, M., Foreman, S. Sargeant, A., (2001). Market versus societal orientation in the non-profit context: International Journal of Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 6(3). pp. 254268 Starlight Chldrens foundation, (2016). Who We Are. Retrieved on 6th January 2017 from https://starlight.org.au/ Ritchie, R.J.B. Weinberg C. B., (2000). A typology of nonprofit competition: Insights for social marketers. Social Marketing Quarterly. 6(3). 64-71. Vessenes, P., (2003). Cash Is King, but Marketing Is Everything. Journal of Financial Planning. 16(2). Williamson, D., (2009). Marketing Communications in Non-profit Organizations. Centre for Public and Non-profit Leadership. Georgetown University. Kaplan, Andreas M. Haenlein, M., (2010). "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media". Business Horizons 53 (1): 5968. Hill, S., Provost, F., Volinsky, C. (2006). "Network-Based Marketing: Identifying Likely Adopters Via Consumer Networks," Statistical Science. 21(2). pp. 256-276.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Jason Nikouyeh Professor Willis English 111, Section 133 4 November 1999 Technology is Changing the Way We Listen to Music Downloading MP3s from the Internet should be made legal. An MP3 is a near CD quality digital recording of a musical piece that is compressed so it can be distributed through the Internet (Simple Net). High prices, new technology, and availability are causing most music lovers to turn to the Internet to listen to their music. It's convenient to search a computer database for a song you've been wanting to hear by your favorite artist, download it, and copy it on to a CD. More and more people are doing this because with the help of search engines it's possible to find any song imaginable and download it for free. What most people don't realize is that the reproduction of a musical work, distribution of copies of a musical piece, and the public performance of the work without the copyright owner's consent are all violations of copyright laws (Anderman and Paez 5). However, they do know that getting caught for this crime is very unlikely. Catching those who violate copyright laws is very tricky because in most cases it's hard to tell who is at fault. Because of very detailed, complicated copyright laws even prosecuting a web site for promoting pirated music is almost too difficult to attempt. New digital audio compression technologies have made promoting, distributing, and selling music very easy (5). Sound files called MPEG 1 Layer 3 or MP3 for short allow users to download digital quality music for free over the Internet. These compressed audio files can be played on an individual's computer by using special software. With the help of CD-writers, a relatively new computer technology that allows people to create there own CDs, illegal copies of the copyrighted material can be made at near compact disc quality (Anderman and Paez 6). Portable MP3 players have now been developed that make pirating songs even easier. Instead of having to search for and buy expensive music, people are simply downloading the songs they want and designing their own CDs or just listening to the music on an MP3 player. In any case these new technologies are concerning the music industry because composers and production companies are losing a tremendous amount of money (MacDonald 1). The increasing popularity of MP3s has resulted in the need for copyright law reforms. Because MP3s violate copyright laws, service providers have to take extreme precautions to avoid liability for copyright infringement (Anderman and Paez 7). The first of many says that service providers are not liable if the provider doesn't start the transmission of the audio file nor manually carry out the copying process (8). The provider can not select the recipients, nor can the transmissions make any changes to the online material (8). The Digital Millennium Copyright Act, otherwise known as DMCA, addresses many issues associated with copyright infringement and rules for digital audio transmission over the Internet. It deals with many issues that include anti-piracy provisions, liability for online copyright infringement, and requirements for digital music delivery (1). These reforms, designed to protect the Internet Service Providers from liability, make catching individuals who break copyrig ht laws very hard. It's difficult for providers of interactive web sites and networks to search through all of their hosted web sites for pirated materials so in order for them to be shielded from liability, they can't have anyway of knowing about the pirated material stored on their server. If the provider is notified of the infringing material, they have to stop accessing to the particular web site immediately. There are many specific rules that the providers must follow in order to avoid blame for copyright infringement if one of their web pages is hosting pirated materials (Anderman and Paez 8). Deciding whether or not copyright laws were violated intentionally is too difficult because there are two types of copyright infringement, direct and indirect (7). If someone makes a digital copy of a musical work such as a MP3 and makes it available for downloading on the Internet, they have directly violated copyright laws. Direct copyright infringement occurs when a person knowingly makes illegal copies of copyrighted material and distributes it to the public
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
buy custom Free Case Study Sample about Nurses Performance Issues wich Have a Significant Impact on Nurses Performance Introduction Numerous issues affect the nurses and they have a significant impact on their performance. For instance, the feeling of powerlessness has a negative impact on the ability of nurses to be competent in care services provision. As a result, they face moral dilemmas as well as burnouts, which affect their performance. In order to understand the aspect of powerlessness in the nursing profession, current paper delves into the issue through two scenarios. The first scenario relates to an emergency department whose nurse manager is facing problems after there has been an increase in the turn-over rate, as well as, poor morale. The majority of employees state that the reason for quitting their jobs is a feeling of powerlessness. In the second scenario, there is an intention to make policies related to governance models, and it has to involve the nurses through asking them questions. Current paper aims at offering an in-depth response to the scenarios, and providing critically analyzed answers .
Saturday, November 23, 2019
How Coconut Oil for Hair Will Make Your Hair Gorgeous SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips People have used coconut oil for thousands of years to moisturize their hair and scalp. In recent years, science has confirmed what many people already knew- coconut oil is a highly effective hair treatment. Want to promote hair growth? Get smoother, sleeker hair? Get rid of annoying dandruff? This guide will go over the top five benefits of coconut oil for hair, along with the evidence that proves why it works so well. Most importantly, we'll talk about how YOU can use coconut oil on your hair, step by step! To learn how coconut oil works, first you need to understand the structure of hair itself. This will really help you understand your body and how to treat it better. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s start there. Hair Structure: What You Need to Know To get why coconut oil works, first you need to understand how hair is structured. Each individual hair on your head is shaped like a cylinder. It has an inner tube made up of the cortex and medulla, and this tube is surrounded by a keratin-based shell called the cuticle. The cuticle isnÃ¢â¬â¢t very flexible, so it struggles to maintain its shape when hair expands and contracts. A healthy cuticle is able to keep its shape and protect the cortex within. A damaged cuticle, on the other hand, has trouble defending itself against the elements. The cuticle can crack or break, thereby exposing the cortex and letting out all the moisture inside. When cuticles break, your hair can feel coarse and have split ends. The cuticle has to protect the cortex from many elements, including heat, chemicals, and even water. In fact, water is one of the worst culprits for cuticle damage. Read on to find out why. Here's a serious close up of a single hair. Hair can feel dry and damaged if the cuticle breaks. (Sam Lindsay/All rights reserved) Water, Hair, and the Dangers of Hygral Fatigue When the individual hairs on your head get wet, they expand. When the water evaporates, they contract again. All of this movement can be tough on the cuticle, which is made up of a pretty inflexible material (the protein keratin, which also forms your fingernails and toenails). Healthy cuticles are good at warding off water and preventing over-absorption. In fact, having Ã¢â¬Å"hydrophobicÃ¢â¬ hair is one sign that your hair is healthy. You can analyze your own hair with a simple test: put a lock of hair in a glass of water. If it floats for a while, then itÃ¢â¬â¢s hydrophobic (hurray!). If, on the other hand, your hair sinks right to the bottom, then it absorbs water fast. If the cuticles around your hairs let in too much water too fast, then the actual fibers of the hair can come apart. This occurrence, known as hygral fatigue, shows itself with coarseness, breakage, and split ends. As youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see below, coconut oil is a great way to make your hair more hydrophobic, thereby protecting the cuticle and cortex within and preventing your hairs from unraveling like a ball of yarn. Before going into the benefits of coconut oil for your hair, letÃ¢â¬â¢s quickly review the other factors that affect the health of your hair. Too much blow drying and straightening can turn your hair into an arid desert. What's Damaging Your Hair? Your hair is technically a dead fiber once it leaves your scalp, but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t respond to factors in your environment. Some external forces that damage hair are Heat, as from a blow dryer or hair straightener Chemicals, as from certain shampoos, conditioners, and hair dyes Touching and twisting, as from elastic, clips, or even just twirling your hair Besides your environment, your hair is also affected by internal factors, like your Nutrition Hydration Scalp circulation Stress levels (lots of stress can make your hair fall out!) Coconut oil addresses many of these factors. It helps moisturize your hair, plus it can be used to treat conditions, like dandruff and head lice. But why is it actually good for your hair? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s look at the top five benefits of coconut oil for your hair, why it works, and how you can use it. Bring the moisture back to your hair with a home coconut oil treatment. Top 5 Benefits of Coconut Oil for Hair Applying coconut oil to your hair is a natural, chemical-free, and effective way to: #1: Deeply condition your hair#2: Treat and prevent damage#3: Reduce dandruff#4: Treat head lice#5: Stimulate hair growth With its cosmetic and medical benefits, coconut oil holistically maintains hair and scalp health in an all-natural way. While it may seem too good to be true, there are research studies that support its efficacy, as youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see below. First, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at the most common use of coconut oil for hair- as a moisturizer. Benefit #1: Deeply Condition Your Hair Coconut oil is highly effective at flooding your hair with moisture. Remember how each hair is made of an inner tube surrounded by the cuticle? Coconut oil can actually penetrate the cuticle, make its way into the hair shaft, and moisturize it from the inside out. Once it soaks into your hair, coconut oil nourishes it with vitamins, mainly Vitamin E and K, minerals, like iron, and lauric acid. The lauric acid, in particular, is special, because it's attracted to proteins in the hair and helps coconut oil soak in. In addition to moisturizing your hair with vitamins and minerals, coconut oil also helps seal off the cuticle. This helps restore damaged cuticles and prevent hygral fatigue, or over-absorption of water. Coconut oil both adds and prevents the loss of moisture. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t just take my word for it, though. Read on to see what the Journal of Cosmetic Science has to say about the effectiveness of coconut oil as a hair moisturizer. When they looked closely, scientists confirmed what lots of people have known for centuries: coconut oil is a super effective hair moisturizer. Research on Coconut Oil as a Hair Moisturizer A study published in the Journal of Cosmetic Science compared coconut oil to mineral oil to see which one better moisturized hair. Mineral oil, by the way, is widely used in mass-produced hair products. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an inexpensive oil, but it also turns out that itÃ¢â¬â¢s an ineffective one! This is what the scientists concluded: Ã¢â¬Å"The results show that coconut oil penetrates the hair shaft while mineral oil does not. The difference may be due to the polarity of the coconut oil compared to the nonpolar nature of the mineral oil. The affinity of the penetrant to the protein seems to be the cause for this difference in their behavior. This study also indicates that the swelling of hair is limited by the presence oil. Since the process of swelling and deswelling of hair is one of the causes of hair damage by hygral fatigue, coconut oil, which is a better penetrant than mineral oil, may provide better protection from damage by hygral fatigue.Ã¢â¬ When the scientists talk about the Ã¢â¬Å"affinity of the penetrant to the protein,Ã¢â¬ theyÃ¢â¬â¢re referring to coconut oilÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to penetrate the hair shaft and moisturize it from the inside out. Beside adding moisture, it also prevents damage from water. Research studies aside, how can you actually apply coconut oil to your hair for a super dose of moisture? How to Use Coconut Oil to Moisturize Your Hair There really arenÃ¢â¬â¢t too many ways to go wrong with coconut oil. For the most part, you can use as much or as little as you want, and you have a lot of leeway in how long you leave it in. These seven steps will tell you everything you need to know about using coconut oil. First, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need a few materials: Extra virgin coconut oil, preferably organic A shower cap or some kind of covering, like an old T-shirt (optional) Old shirt (so you donÃ¢â¬â¢t get oil on your clothes) It works best to apply coconut oil to damp, towel-dried hair. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve washed or just rinsed your hair and dried it off, your first step will be getting the coconut oil ready to apply. Step 1: Melt the Coconut Oil Get the coconut oil into liquid form. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s solid at room temperature and melts at 76 degrees or higher. The best way to do this is to put together a makeshift double boiler by placing a cup or bowl of coconut oil into a bigger bowl of hot water. Note- you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t microwave the coconut oil. This can degrade the proteins. If you have fine hair and are only using a little, then you could also just rub the coconut oil between your hands. I use the double boiler method, as IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got thick hair and need to use several tablespoons of oil. Step 2: Determine How Much Coconut Oil to Use in Your Hair Experiment with how much oil to put in your hair. Finer hair may just use one to two teaspoons. If you have thicker hair, then you might use three to five tablespoons and work it through section by section. Figuring out the right amount may take some trial and error, but you can always rinse it out if you feel like you put too much. Step 3: Work the Coconut Oil Into Your Hair Work the coconut oil through your hair starting from the ends and moving your way up. You might avoid or go light on the roots and scalp, unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re specifically looking to moisturize your scalp or treat dandruff. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not, then too much oil here could make the hair heavy and be tough to rinse out. If you're leaving coconut oil in your hair overnight, remember to put a towel on your pillow. This baby forgot and got oil everywhere. Step 4: Comb Your Hair Comb the oil through your hair with your fingers or a wide-toothed comb or brush. Try to distribute it evenly. Step 5: Let It Sit Put your hair up with an elastic or cover it with a shower cap or other covering. You can let your hair sit and moisturize for anywhere from half an hour to 18 hours. The longer you let it sit (up to a point), the more it can soak in and moisturize your hair. Step 6: Rinse Rinse the oil out of your hair. You can use shampoo or not, depending on whether you need to wash your hair. Step 7: Style Your Hair Style your hair normally! If youÃ¢â¬â¢re aiming to prevent dryness, try to avoid harsh heats from styling tools. You can also rub a small amount of coconut oil into your hair as a styling product. It can tame frizz, add shine, and act as a heat protectant. Just donÃ¢â¬â¢t overdo it and end up with oily clumps! Remember, coconut oil is an oil, so be careful about getting it on your clothes or pillow. Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s consider the second, related use of coconut oil - as a way to treat and prevent damage. Coconut oil restores damaged proteins? That's nuts. Benefit #2: Treat and Prevent Damage Coconut oil both treats and prevents damage to hair. In addition to the hygral fatigue you read about earlier, hair can also get damaged by protein loss. When you treat hair with chemicals or heat, you break bonds in proteins. When I straighten my curly hair with a 400 degree hair straightener, for instance, IÃ¢â¬â¢m breaking protein bonds and changing the structure of my hair. Of course, the curls come right back once my hair gets wet, but proteins arenÃ¢â¬â¢t always able to rebound to their original form. Lots of heat can result in long-term damage. Coconut oil can both fix existing damage to proteins and prevent further injury by acting as a heat protectant. Check out what this research study has to say about how coconut oil takes care of the proteins in your hair. Research on Coconut Oil to Prevent Protein Damage Many of the same researchers that looked at coconut oil as a moisturizer studied its effects on hair proteins. Their study was called Ã¢â¬Å"Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.Ã¢â¬ This is what they found: Ã¢â¬Å"The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product.Ã¢â¬ Coconut oil reduces protein loss because of its composition. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s made of lauric acid, which, as mentioned above, can go inside the hair shaft. The other oils, which are in so many hair products, donÃ¢â¬â¢t contain lauric acid and thus canÃ¢â¬â¢t help with hair protein damage, as the researchers concluded: Ã¢â¬Å"Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft.Ã¢â¬ Coconut oil offers a two-pronged approach to hair damage. It both treats damaged proteins by binding to them, and it prevents further loss. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to use coconut oil to treat or prevent damage, what steps should you take? "My hair looks crazy. Sure wish I'd remembered to use coconut oil this morning." How to Use Coconut Oil to Treat Damage Treating damage and moisturizing your hair share a lot of overlap, so you can apply coconut oil using the seven steps described above. Distribute a good amount of liquid-form coconut oil in damp hair, and let it sit for anywhere from half an hour to overnight before rinsing out. Besides a full leave-in treatment, you can also use a small amount to prevent damage from heat, as described in these three steps. Step 1: Melt the Coconut Oil Get coconut oil in liquid form by rubbing it between your hands. Step 2: Rub the Oil Into Your Hair Rub anywhere from one to five teaspoons of coconut oil in your damp hair, depending on the thickness and length of your hair. Start from the bottom and work your way up, avoiding your roots to avoid oily build-up. Step 3: Comb the Coconut Oil Through Your Hair Evenly distribute the coconut oil throughout your hair with your fingers or a wide-toothed comb. If you find you put too much, you can rinse it out and try again! Step 4: Style Your Hair Style your hair as usual. You may use other products in conjunction with the coconut oil, but it can also work to reduce frizz and add shine to your hair on its own. You might love it so much that coconut oil becomes a part of your daily hair care routine! These first two benefits of coconut oil are all about restoring shine, body, and moisture to your hair. Beyond making your hair beautiful, coconut oil also has healthcare benefits, like treating dandruff and getting rid of head lice. Read on to learn how coconut oil accomplishes this and how to use it. Dandruff got you down? Coconut oil might get rid of it for good! Benefit #3: Get Rid of Dandruff Coconut oil has been to shown to contain antifungal and antibacterial properties that treat dandruff. It has been seen to be most effective in treating the dandruff caused by a yeast-like fungus called Malassezia. Since dandruff can have a number of causes, coconut oil may not always work on it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s definitely worth a try, though! At the very least, the oil will moisturize and soothe your scalp. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s check out the research base behind coconut oil as a dandruff treatment. Research on Coconut Oil to Treat Dandruff ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot more anecdotal evidence that coconut oil works to treat dandruff than there is scientific evidence yet, but a lot of people swear by it. There have been some studies that looked at coconut oil as a skin moisturizer with antibacterial and antifungal properties. For instance, this study concluded the following: Ã¢â¬Å"The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species...Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections.Ã¢â¬ The study looked at Malassezia, by the way, the fungus that has been linked to dandruff. If you want to give it a try, read on for how to apply coconut oil. How to Use Coconut Oil to Treat Dandruff WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the best way to use coconut oil to treat dandruff? Try these three steps to see if coconut oil is the remedy for you. Step 1: Shampoo Shampoo your hair thoroughly. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve rinsed out all the shampoo, towel dry your hair so itÃ¢â¬â¢s damp, not dripping. Step 2: Massage Coconut Oil Into Your Scalp Rub coconut oil between your hands to get it into liquid form. Massage two to four teaspoons of oil into your scalp, making sure to cover all the areas with dandruff. Step 3: Let It Sit Let the coconut oil sit on your scalp for at least ten minutes. Then rinse it out and shampoo your hair again. You can also let the coconut oil sit overnight, perhaps using a shower cap or covering your pillow with a towel to guard it from oil. You can use this coconut oil two to three times a week as needed. Coconut oil might save you a trip to the doctor! It's been shown to work better than traditionally prescribed head lice medicine. Benefit #4: Get Rid of Head Lice As you read above, coconut oil has both antibacterial and antifungal properties. These properties make it an effective treatment against head lice. In fact, itÃ¢â¬â¢s been shown to be even better than the widely prescribed medicine, permethrin lotion! The study below combined coconut oil with anise to produce an effective, lice-killing spray. Research on Coconut Oil to Treat Head Lice This research study compared coconut oil to permethrin lotion, the medicine that doctors usually prescribe to get rid of head lice. What did the scientists find? Ã¢â¬Å"We concluded that, although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, the coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment.Ã¢â¬ Coconut oil doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just work- it works better than the usual prescription! Read on to see how to use coconut oil for lice. How to Use Coconut Oil to Get Rid of Head Lice While you might douse your hair liberally with coconut oil to moisturize it, you would use the largest amount when attacking head lice. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need coconut oil, a shower cap or towel, a comb, and a blow dryer. Step 1: Coat Your Hair and Scalp in Coconut Oil Get the coconut oil in liquid form via the makeshift double boiler method described above. Apply a liberal amount to coat your hair and scalp completely. Step 2: Massage Your Scalp Massage the coconut oil into your scalp for several minutes. Step 3: Cover Your Hair Cover your hair with a shower cap or towel for at least one to two hours. You may run a blow dry around your head to add heat. Step 4: Comb Out Dead Lice Remove the covering from your hair and use the comb to remove dead lice and eggs. Step 5: Wash and Repeat Wash your hair, and then repeat Steps 1 through 4. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s best to let the oil sit for longer this time around, leaving it overnight if possible. When you remove the covering, again comb through your hair and then shampoo. Besides using pure coconut oil, you can also combine it with other ingredients. A few common remedies include combining coconut oil with three to five drops of tea tree oil, which has natural insecticide properties, or ten cloves of ground garlic, which has natural antiseptic properties. Some people have also tried covering their hair first with apple cider vinegar. They allow the vinegar to dry and then go through the steps of the coconut oil treatment. Finally, the multi-use coconut oil, in addition to all its other great uses, has also been said to stimulate hair growth. Massage coconut oil on your scalp, and you might become a real-life Rapunzel! Benefit #5: Stimulate Hair Growth Coconut oil has been said to promote hair growth. It moisturizes the scalp and impersonates natural scalp oils, specifically the oil sebum. Its various properties also help prevent the growth of bacteria and fungus. Finally, coconut oil has been said to increase scalp circulation and oxygen. There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t much research research to support using coconut oil for hair growth yet, but with all its other great benefits, it won't hurt to give it a try. The steps below will tell you how. How to Use Coconut Oil for Hair Growth The research behind coconut oil as a hair growth stimulator is still lacking, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s certainly worth trying, if only for its antibacterial, antifungal, and moisturizing effects. All you need to do is massage two to three teaspoons of liquid coconut oil into your scalp and let it sit for at least ten minutes. Then wash your hair as normal. Use it several times a week and see if your hair grows more over time! Coconut oil may seem like a miracle substance with all its benefits for your hair and scalp, and many people believe that it is. At the same time, no treatment works the same for everyone. There are a few side effects that people have reported after using coconut oil on their hair. Using Coconut Oil for Hair: 3 Possible Side Effects People have reported three main problems with using coconut oil on their hair. Some people say it made their hair feel drier. Others said it caused a rash to break out on their neck. And a few others said that coconut oil caused acne breakouts. Coconut oil is, of course, an oil, and many agree that it can clog your pores and aggravate skin thatÃ¢â¬â¢s prone to oiliness and acne. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re using coconut oil for the first time, you might just use a small amount and wait to see if you experience any of these side effects. If you do have a bad reaction, then you should simply stop using it. There are other natural oils you can try if youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to cut out chemical-filled hair products, like olive oil, avocado oil, grapeseed oil, and jojoba oil. If you don't get any side effects, though, then you may have just found the secret to healthy hair and chemical-free hair care! Behold, the mighty coconut! This tropical fruit might just be the secret to amazing hair. Coconut Oil for Hair: Major Benefits and Uses For many people, coconut oil is an effective, versatile hair treatment. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s full of nourishing vitamins and minerals, and its unique composition lets it penetrate the hair shaft and add moisture from the inside out. Besides using coconut oil as a deep conditioning treatment, you can also add some to style your hair or protect it from heat. Not only will you have one good hair day after another, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ll make your scalp healthy with coconut oilÃ¢â¬â¢s antibacterial and antifungal properties. Make sure to use coconut oil in liquid form- 76 degrees or higher. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got the hang of it, you might experiment with adding in essential oils and creating your own hair products! Modern research studies and ancient practice agree - coconut oil is a great, all-natural way to get strong, healthy, beautiful hair.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Distinct Varieties of Masculinity - Essay Example The feminists believe that the discrimination curtails women rights and seek to see the situation changed. (Piper 2009) Masculinity refers to masculine which denote something related to a male who include men and boys. (Piper 2011) defines masculinity as an expression to serve and not to be served expressing a sacrifice for the woman, which requires giving direction and having a final say. While looking at the distinct values of masculinity arises from the comparison of feminist and masculinity where feminist seek for equality between men and women, but some things constitute for womanhood and others manhood. The essay below discusses the comparison of the two in regard to distinct variety of masculinity. Distinct varieties of masculinity To begin with thoughts and experiences of men, they help in understanding gender in terms of the masculine variables, as opposed to feminist. (Rotundo, p. 106) argues that women beauty lured men from their known pleasure and secure culture to follow ing women. Therefore, opining that gender gets socially construed with masculine thoughts and behaviors arising from social and cultural processes. The scholar opines that the new complex culture, give rise to the conception of self made manhood. (Rotundo, p. 80 ) Explains the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, which prepared boys, for rough and competitive world of politics and business, also the youth culture characterized by debating clubs, where they learned new skills and how to compete in socially acceptable ways. Similarly, (Rotundo, p 86) expresses the idea of masculinity by demonstrating thinking and experiences during both boys and youth culture. Both cultures have great emotional depth involving wrestling, fisticuffsÃ¢â¬â¢ and rehearsals for marriage by teenage boys in preparation for adult responsibilities. The thoughts of young men inclined to taming girls while driven by desires for sex and home cooked food because they regarded women to be different from men. More so, the develo pment of culture had many think that masculinity manifested in the success of men in both business and politics. Argument and opinion RotundoÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that masculinity can be traced from the thoughts and experiences of as construed in the cultural and social development has a lot of merits and some controversies. The following reasons support RotundoÃ¢â¬â¢s argument: that culture develops and so the thinking and experience of a person changes as the social and cultural responsibility change; people do grow and so changes occur, so masculinity can be examined at different stages of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life as Rotundo considers the issue in different cultural stages; argument that a society undergoes economic and social changes (Rotundo, p. 22) requires that man change masculinity to adopt with the new roles. Therefore, this concept of distinct of masculinity is worthy agreeable with since the feminine assume its feminist like ways. Secondly, transforming masculinity can be
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Economic - Assignment Example In the perfect competition case the focus of the discussion is break-even profits in the long run. In the perfect competition scenario the emphasis of the analysis is on product differentiation strategy. In our first case we have small firm operating in a very competitive environment. The type of environment this company is dealing with can be categorized in economic terms as a perfect competition market structure. Perfect competition is an economic market structure that has many sellers and buyers participating where the firms sell identical products which allows for customers to substitute goods or services with ease (Investopedia, 2009). In this market structure the barriers of entry as low. The low barriers of entry create easy access for suitors to participate in the marketplace. Due to the intense competition companies often leave the marketplace. The fact that products are similar in nature allows for many substitute products to appear. A good example of businesses that participate in perfect competition is the agricultural industry players. In perfect competition the formula to determine profits is price equals marginal costs equals marginal revenues (P=MC=MR). A qualitative interpretation of this formula is that there are cero economic profits achieved in the long run. Since the sellers realize the existence of the zero profit phenomenon merchants are not worried as much about unitary profits in the short run, they instead concentrate on accumulating profits over the long survival. Survival for companies operation under perfect competition is the sign of success. Appendix A shows a graphical illustration of profit behavior under perfect competition. Case b in the graph illustrates the zero profit long run scenario. Appendix B provides more details about the equilibrium that creates a break even profit. Understanding the true reasons why there is not profit in this market structure in the long run is not really that complicated. The profits and
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Organizing Work Essay McDonalds Corporation It has become clear to upper management that the way McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has been operating over the past decade is not helping in moving the company forward. Upper management feels that the company is falling behind, and changes must be made immediately. The changes need to start with how the organization is structured. Once proper changes in structure are made, it is believed that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s will then be able to implement plans that will lead McDonalds into a successful future. The purpose of this paper is to make recommendations as to what changes in organizational structure would help McDonalds become more sufficient. Along with changes in structure the paper will also determine what work needs to be done, how it is to be done, and the approach that should be used to bring success back into the organization. Recommendations There have recently been talks between upper management about making necessary structural changes to the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s organization here in the U.S. The first recommended change is eliminating levels of management. Numbers of the past have shown that the old traditional way of communication and barriers of so many levels of management had become a barrier to decision making (Jennings, Maze, 2014). The team agrees with this change and believes that the change should be implemented as soon as possible. The basis for this change is that it will help in bring the company closer to the customers. With so many layers of management it seems as if there is more time being spent arguing and talking to each other, rather than talking to the customer and making decisions. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing has shown that they need to adapt to the current customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs of what they want. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ president has worked for McDonalds for the last ten years, and he has seen numbers drop drastically which means, it is time for change (Jennings, Maze, 2014). Essentially it is safe to say that McDonalds is losing its relationship with its customers. Another huge change that McDonalds has been thinking about is changing the number of divisions here in North America from three to four. It is believed that grouping the regions into four divisions, as well as eliminating some levels of management will allow for regional leaders to have more autonomy, and will allow leaders to set a menu based on the restaurants geographic location. According to the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s website, Jennings, Maze, (2014), Ã¢â¬Å"The changes are highlighted by the elimination of layers of management, giving leaders of its 22 U.S. regions more autonomy in setting the menus and making marketing decisions.Ã¢â¬ These changes will also allow McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders to restructure the menu to be more diverse to any oneÃ¢â¬â¢s eating habit. They will be allowed to market more things on the menu than just burgers and fries. Change is good, and they are excited to embrace it. How to do Work Effectively Every organization has itsÃ¢â¬â¢ own structure to follow. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s current structure is failing when it comes to the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ wants. This is why upper management has been talking about restructuring the design by dividing McDonald USA into four divisions. These divisions would include, Northeast, South, Central and West (Jargon, 2014). Each region would have a president in charge. Under each president there should be different types of managers who know the culture of each region. This will allow for the company to deliver the right product to the customers. They also need to remove some of the managerial levels because having too many managersÃ¢â¬â¢ results in decisions not being made. Eventually leading to a lack of growth in the business. McDonald needs to adapt according to the changes that are taking place in the world such as; the economy, competitors and technology. They need to have basic meals that fit all regions; in addition to that, they need to create new products to fit with the culture of each region. Sweet tea is a good example of a product that fits in with the culture in the south. Therefore it would be good for McDonalds restaurants in the south toÃ promote sweet tea. However, sweet tea is not very popular in the Northeast so it would be pointless to spend money promoting a product that no one is interested in. This is where the president of the region would need to find another product to promote. One that will fit the culture, and interest of the people in the Northeast. This means that management in each region needs to focus on research and development in order to make the right decision. In addition, technology is really important nowadays that is why McDonald needs to work with Apple to create an account in Apple Pay. Customers can pay quickly and order their food ahead of time. This will satisfy their customers because most of them do not have the time to wait to pick up their meal. It will take both an individual and team effort for McDonalds to complete the work. Upper level managers will need to work individually to make the right decisions. For instance, upper level manager should study the region and try to figure out how they can enhance the product or create a new product to fit the culture. Lower level employees need to work in teams so they can satisfy the customers. For example, the worker operating the grill cooks the meat and when it is done he or she passes it to another worker to make the sandwich according to the customers preference. Each team member is important because if they are not motivated to do their work the whole team will fail to deliver the product to the customer. It is very important that there is manager in each branch to motivate and coach the employees. Managers must be able to fill the role of an employee if the branch was crowded and direct them to do the right job. The manager should focus on increasing the sales by satisfying the customers. Best Approach McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporation needs to embrace that changes that are set to take place. Upper management will need to stick by their decisions, and have faith in their management. This means allowing the presidents in each of the four new divisions to take full control of operations within their regions. The divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s presidents must look to regional managers for input on necessary changes. It is up to them to find out what the customers want, and what the customers want is what they should get. Ideally McDonalds is looking to do two things when making these structural changes. The first is to keep the same basic product menu in every region, but allow for differentÃ regions to add certain products that cater to the customers in that region. Second is to allow for decisions to be made more efficiently and effectively. Conclusion The planning for these changes has already begun and sometime in the immediate future the changes will be implemented. These are good changes and the team feels that they will eventually make a significant difference in the overall success of McDonalds Corporation. It is going to take time, but we feel these changes will lead us into the future on the right path. References Jennings, Maze,, L.J. (2014). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Reorganizes US into Four Regional Divisions. Retrieved from http://nrn.com/mcdonalds/mcdonald-s-reorganizes-us-four-regional-divisions Jargon, Julie, (2014). McDonalds Plan to Change U.S. Structure. Rettrieved from http://online.wsj.com/articles/mcdonalds-to-change-u-s-structure-1414695278
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mrs. Turpin in Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnorÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Revelation, is a prejudice and judgmental woman who spends most of her life prying in the lives of everyone around her. She looks at people not for who they are, but for their race or social standing. In fact, Mrs. Turpin is concerned with race and status so much that it seems to take over her life. Although she seems to disapprove of people of different race or social class, Mrs. Turpin seems to be content and appreciative with her own life. It is not until Mrs. TurpinÃ¢â¬â¢s Revelation that she discovers that her ways of life are no better then those she looks down upon and they will not assure her a place in Heaven. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mrs. Turpin shows prejudice in several different aspects of her life. Her prejudice is first seen when she is in the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s waiting room. The story states that Ã¢â¬Å"her little black eyes took in all the patients as she sized up the seating situation.Ã¢â¬ (339) While in the waiting room, Mrs. Turpin is surrounded by people of many different cultural and social backgrounds. As she gazes around the room Mrs. Turpin immediately begins putting the people into categories. Some she called Ã¢â¬Å"white trashÃ¢â¬ , others were wealthy and pleasant, and the remainder such as Mary Grace, were ugly. Most of Mrs. TurpinÃ¢â¬â¢s free time is also filled with prejudice thoughts. The story states that Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs. Turpin occupied herself at night naming the classes of people.Ã¢â¬ (341) She spends so much of her life judging otherÃ¢â¬â¢s lives that she does...
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
With the development of world, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education is important for every family. Education has been developing rapidly. There are many aspects that affect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Nowadays, more and more poor children cannot go to school because they do not have enough money. However, learning knowledge and receiving education for children are very important. Each stateÃ¢â¬â¢s education is not the same. In some countries, there are children who are educated by their parents at home rather than being taught by teachers at school. If children do not have good educations, they cannot go to good university and their ideas cannot improve their countries. In China, we have nine years of compulsory education. It is good for children and every family. According to the research, the impacts on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education will be analyzed by responding to the following questions: 1. How does health effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education? 2. How does IQ effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education? 3. How does family effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education? 4. How does money effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education? How does health effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education? As we know, the health is important for everybody, especially childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Health includes two parts. One is mental health. Nowadays, we have good quality of life and children can go to good school to study. The economic situation of many family are good, so many parents want to their children to learn piano, guitar, dance and draw etc. Children do not have enough time to do what they like to do and relax mood. The pressure of the children is very big and they will be afraid to learn. The most important of all that excessive psychological pressure will do a lot of damage. Some of children had attempted suicide because of the parents give their too much pressure. Another one is physical health. In Australia, indigenous children have lower achievement levels and education levels generally speaking. (Lyons & Janca, 2012) In some poor countries, they study in bad environment. It is easy to get some diseases. Because of the health problem, some of students get some diseases during school time, so they will miss class. If you get some disease, you will infect other people. They do not have enough money to treat an illness. It is dangerous. In order to improve this situation, the government has implemented some equality treatment policy between indigenous and non- indigenous people. How does IQ effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education? Everybody have different IQ. Every parent hopes their child has high IQ because their think the high IQ of learning is very important. Some necessary factors are effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s IQ. About childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental environment, the family is important to change childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s IQ. If the parents like to use brains, this is directly related to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental development. If the parents are eager to learn, children will learn as parents. If the parents just require their child to learn everyday but their do not work, like that child will not be willing to listen to you. The family relationships are also important. The single mothers and married mothers affect education is different. Each family atmosphere, emotion, quality, can effect children IQ. (Am, 2001) According to the research, between urban and rural areas the IQ of children between 6 to 11 ages will be change. Children do not have any experiences of life, the IQ will become low; the families also do not have any conditions of social material life, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s IQ will become lower. This is not good for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s IQ development because children cannot try any new things and they cannot know much news. How does family effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education? Nowadays, parents neglect their children in preschool education, this result in many kids have lower academic level and social skills then their classmate. Pre-education was assessed for children age between 60-72 months; the early education can teach children knowledge and let them cognitive more things. Aral et al. (2012) the early education can change children become more health and can change children negative behavior. Parents can better know how to lead and support their children to success. Every parentÃ¢â¬â¢s education mood is not the same and the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas are important to effect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education. The most important is parents had to respect them and parents should pay attention to education child way, they have to insisting on respect while still helping him move toward manhood. (Dunn, 2011) Parents need create a good environment to raise children health and improve their social skill knowledge. According to the report, parents of children are encouraged to have a positive effect. A lot of information can support this point. How does money effect children education? At present, people attach great importance to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Nowadays, social competition is very big. The money is important for every person. Because of some economic, many children cannot go to school and they cannot get a good education. Family has rich, children can get high education but if is the opposite, children just get normal education. Most family just have one child, their parents both hope they are can learn more things and pay a lot of money for their children. The condition of their school is very good than those normal school. Their school have different classroom that teach different course. Children can learn more different knowledge and they can learn their favorite hobby. In recently year, there are many economic crisis, it would affect wealthy districts and many poor countries need the countries found. In 2006 years, court ruling that ordered the state to give each child enough money can get a good education. (Ã¢â¬Å"MoneyÃ¢â¬ , 2011). In the conclusion, children education cannot be neglected today. Kids will become the core pillar of the world in the future. So, we must be concerned with them in many aspects, such as childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health and family problem. In both psycho-health and physical health threaten childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s develop nowadays. Reference 1. Lyons, Z. , & Janca, A. (2012). Indigenous children in Australia: Health, education and optimism for the future. Australian Journal Of Education, 56(1), 5-21. 2. Aral, N. , Baran, G. , Gursoy, F. , Akyol, A. , Ayhan, A. , Bicakic, M. , & Erdogan, S. (2012). The effects of parent education programs on the development of children aged between 60 and 72 months. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 39(2), 241-249. doi:10. 2224 3. Am, E. (2001). Stability and change in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence quotient scores: A comparison of two socioeconomically disparate communities. American Journal of Epidemiology. 154 (8), 711-777,doi:10. 1093/aje/154. 8. 711 4. Anna, M. (2012). Pay to the order of public school X. Schoolbook. Retrieved from: http://www. nytimes. com/schoolbook/2012/03/19/pay-to-the-order-of-public- school-x 5. (2012). Education. Global action week. Save the Children. Retrieved from: http://www. savethechildren. org/site/c. 8rKLIXMGIpI4E/b. 6153015/k. E633/Education. htm 6. Shiffman, C. (2011). Making It Visible: An Exploration of How Adult Education Participation Informs Parent Involvement in Education for School-Age Children. Adult Basic Education & Literacy Journal, 5(3), 161-170. Retrieved from: www. ebsochost. com 7. Rich district, poor district. (2011). The fiscal crisis. New York, NY, 9. Retrieved from: www. nytimes. com.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The first step in the breathing process starts with the brain. The brain sends a message to the diaphragm, telling it to move. The diaphragm is a large dome shaped muscle that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity and attaches to the ribs at the sides and the sternum in the front of the body. When the brain tells the diaphragm to move, it flattens out, enlarging the thorax of the body, the ribs, and the chest. When the chest expands, it pulls on the lungs, causing a drop in pressure in the lungs compared to the pressure of the atmosphere and air is sucked into the lungs to balance the pressures. There are many muscles used in the process of inhalation. The diaphragm is the most important. The external intercostals are on the outside of the ribs, and extend from rib to rib, in between. These muscles help to pull the lower ribs up when the chest is rising to take air into the lungs. The levatores costorum are small muscles that extend from the vertebrae to the ribs. They also aid in lifting the ribs upward. The serratus posterior superior extend down and out from the vertebrae to the upper ribs in the back. These muscles also help raise the chest. The pectoralis major is the upper chest muscle that fans out from the humerus and inserts into the sternum and the clavicle. The pectoralis minor extends from the scapula and inserts into the second through fifth ribs. This muscle is also fan shaped and helps to raise the ribs. The lattissimus dorsi (or Ã¢â¬Å"lattsÃ¢â¬ ) is the large muscle on the back extending from the lower vertebrae to the hip bone and from the ribs to the upper arm. This muscle helps to expand the lower part of the thorax. The sternocleidomastoid extends from the skull to the sternum and clavicle. It helps to pull the chest upward. The last muscle important in the act of inhaling is the scalenes, This muscle extends from the neck to the first and second ribs and helps to pull the chest upward. Exhalation: The act of exhaling is pretty much the exact reverse of inhaling. The diaphragm relaxes and goes back into its dome-like shape. The ribs, chest, and thorax lower and return to their natural position. Gravity also plays a part in lowering the chest, ribs, and thorax. The lungs, elastic air passages, and chest wall recoil, and exhalation occurs. There are also many muscles that are involved with the process of exhaling. The abdominals are the primary muscles of exhalation. They pull in a down and out motion, helping to lower the chest and contract the diaphragm and other muscles. The internal intercostals are on the inside of the ribs and extend between them. They help to pull the ribs downward and inward. The subcostals are also on the inside of the ribs and extend upward and outward from the lower rib to the higher rib. These muscles also help to pull the ribs inward. The serratus posterior inferior extend up and out from the vertebrae to the four lower ribs and these muscles pull the ribs downward. The quadratus lumborum extends from the lowest rib to the hip bone and anchors the lowest rib from pull from the diaphragm. Finally, the transversis thoracis extends upward and outward from the lower part of the sternum and inserts into the second through sixth ribs. This muscle helps to pull the chest downward. Singing:Ã It is important in singing to have strong muscles and to use the muscles in a correct way to achieve the maximum potential of the air flow and of the voice. There are three types of respiration: Quiet respiration, forced respiration, and subglottal pressure. Quiet respiration is involuntary breathing. It is the type of breathing that occurs at any restful state and there is very little exchange of air. Forced respiration is voluntary breathing. It is used in yelling, loud talking, and singing. It requires active use of both the inhalation and exhalation muscles and there is a large amount of air exchanged within the lungs. Subglottal pressure is probably the most important in singing. It is the overpressure of air in the lungs, created by forced respiration. There is forced airflow against partially closed vocal folds. This type of respiration allows the singer to control airflow and have a constant sound. Using correct breath control and muscle control will allow a singer to achieve constant intensity and sound in their voice.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
community policing essays Community Policing*Picture*Grade:B+Language:EnglishSystem:Four-Year CollegeCountry:USAAuthors Comments: : Crime is defined as commission of an act or act of omission that violates the law and is punishable by the state. Crimes are considered injurious to society and the community. As defined by law, a crime includes both the act,or actus rea, and the intent to commit the act, or mens rea. Criminal intent involves an intellectual apprehension of factual elements of the act or acts commanded or enjoined by the law. It is usually inferred from the apparently voluntary commission of an overt act. Criminal liability is relieved in the case of insanity. Legal minors are also relieved of criminal liability, as are persons subjected to coercion or duress to such a degree as to render the commission of criminal acts involuntary. In most countries, crimes are defined and punished pursuant to statutes. Punishments may include death, imprisonment, exile, fines, forfeiture of property, removal from public office, and disqualification from holding such office. Unless the act of which a defendant is accused is expressly defined by statute as a crime, no indictment or conviction for the commission of such an act can be legally sustained. This provision is important in establishing the difference between government by law and arbitrary or dictatorial government. Under common law, a crime was generally classified as treason, felony, or misdemeanor, but many offenses could not be defined exactly, and the rule was adopted that any immoral act tending to the prejudice of the community was, per se, a crime, and punishable by the courts. Crimes are now usually classified as mala in se, which includes acts, such as murder, so offensive to morals as to be obviously criminal; and mala prohibita, which are violations of specific regulatory statutes, such as traffic violations, that ordinarily would not be punishable in the absence of statutory enactme...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Bent Pyramid Insight In Egyptian Architectural History The Bent Pyramid in Dahshur, Egypt is unique among pyramids: instead of being a perfect pyramid shape, the slope changes about 2/3 of the way to the top. It is also one of five Old Kingdom Pyramids that retain their original form, 4,500 years after their construction. All of them- the Bent and Red Pyramids at Dahshur and the three Pyramids at Giza- were built within a single century. Out of all five, the Bent Pyramid is the best opportunity we have for understanding how architectural techniques of ancient Egypt were developed. Statistics The Bent Pyramid is located near Saqqara, and it was built during the reign of the Old Kingdom Egyptian pharaoh Snefru, sometimes transliterated from the hieroglyphs as Snofru or Sneferu. Snefru ruled Upper and Lower Egypt between 2680-2565 BCE or 2575-2551 BCE, depending on which chronology you use. The Bent Pyramid is 189 meters (620 feet) square at its base and 105 m (345 ft) tall. It has two distinct interior apartments designed and built independently and connected only by a narrow passageway. Entrances to these rooms are located on the north and west faces of the pyramid. It is unknown who was buried inside of the Bent Pyramid- their mummies were stolen in ancient times. Why is it Bent? The pyramid is called bent because of that steep change in slope. To be precise, the lower part of the pyramids outline is angled inward at 54 degrees, 31 minutes, and then at 49 m (165 ft) above the base, the slope abruptly flattens out to 43 degrees, 21 minutes, leaving a distinctively odd shape. Several theories about why the pyramid was made this way were prevalent in Egyptology until recently. They included the premature death of the pharaoh, requiring the speedy completion of the pyramid; or that noises coming from the interior clued the builders into the fact that the angle was not sustainable. To Bend or Not to Bend Archaeoastronomer Juan Antonio Belmonte and engineer Giulio Magli have argued that the Bent Pyramid was built at the same time as the Red Pyramid, a pair of monuments built to celebrate Snefru as the double-king: pharaoh of the Red Crown of the north and the White Crown of the South. Magli, in particular, has argued that the bend was an intentional element of the Bent Pyramids architecture, meant to establish an astronomical alignment appropriate to Snefrus sun cult. The most commonly held theory today is that a comparably sloped pyramid- Meidum, also thought to have been built by Snefru- collapsed while the Bent Pyramid was still under construction, and the architects adjusted their building techniques to make sure the Bent Pyramid would not do the same. A Technological Breakthrough Intentional or not, the Bent Pyramids odd appearance provides insight into the technical and architectural breakthrough it represents in Old Kingdom monument building. The dimensions and weight of the stone blocks are much greater than its predecessors, and the construction technique of the outer casings is quite different. Earlier pyramids were constructed with a central core with no functional distinctions between casing and external layer: the experimenting architects of the Bent Pyramid tried something different. Like the earlier Step Pyramid, the Bent pyramid has a central core with progressively smaller horizontal courses stacked on top of one another. To fill in the external steps and make a smooth-faced triangle, the architects needed to add casing blocks. The Meidum pyramids outer casings were formed by cutting sloped edges on horizontally placed blocks: but that pyramid failed, spectacularly, its outer casings falling off it in a catastrophic landslide as it neared completion. The Bent Pyramids casings were cut as rectangular blocks, but they were laid sloping inward at 17 degrees against the horizontal. That is technically more difficult, but it gives strength and solidity to the building, taking advantage of gravity pulling the mass inward and downward. This technology was invented during the construction: in the 1970s, Kurt Mendelssohn suggested that when Meidum collapsed, the core of the Bent Pyramid was already built to a height of about 50 m (165 ft), so instead of starting from scratch, the builders changed the way the outer casings were constructed. By the time Cheops pyramid at Giza was constructed a few decades later, those architects used improved, better-fitting and better-shaped limestone blocks as casings, permitting that steep and lovely 54-degree angle to survive. A Complex of Buildings In the 1950s, archaeologistÃ Ahmed FakhryÃ discovered that the Bent Pyramid was surrounded by a complex of temples, residential structures and causeways, hidden beneath the shifting sands of the Dahshur plateau. Causeways and orthogonal roads connect the structures: some were built or added on to during the Middle Kingdom, but much of the complex is attributed to the reign of Snefru or his 5th dynasty successors. All later pyramids are also part of complexes, but the Bent Pyramids is one of the earliest examples. The Bent Pyramid complex includes a small upper temple or chapel to the east of the pyramid, a causeway and a valley temple. The Valley Temple is a rectangular 47.5x27.5 m (155.8x90 ft) stone building with an open courtyard and a gallery that probably held six statues of Snefru. Its stone walls are about 2 m (6.5 ft) thick. Residential and Administrative An extensive (34x25 m or 112x82 ft) mud brick structure with much thinner walls (.3-.4 m or 1-1.3 ft) was adjacent to the valley temple, and it was accompanied by round silos and square storage buildings. A garden with some palm trees stood nearby, and a mud-brick enclosure wall surrounded all of it. Based on archaeological remains, this set of buildings served a range of purposes, from domestic and residential to administrative and storage. A total of 42 clay sealing fragments naming fifth dynasty rulers was found in a midden east of the valley temple. South of the Bent pyramid is a smaller pyramid, 30 m (100 ft) high with an overall slope of about 44.5 degrees. The small inner chamber may have held another statue of Snefru, this one to hold the Ka, the symbolic vital spirit of the king. Arguably, the Red Pyramid could be part of the intended Bent Pyramid complex. Built roughly at the same time, the Red Pyramid is the same height, but faced with reddish limestone- scholars surmise that this is the pyramid where Snefru himself was buried, but of course, his mummy was looted long ago. Other features of the complex include a necropolis with Old Kingdom tombs and Middle Kingdom burials, located east of the Red Pyramid. Archaeology and History The primary archaeologist associated with excavations in the 19th century was William Henry Flinders Petrie; and in the 20th century, it was Ahmed Fakhry. Ongoing excavations are being conducted at Dahshur by the German Archaeological Institute at Cairo and the Free University of Berlin. Sources Aboulfotouh, Hossam M. K. Astronomical Algorithms of Egyptian Pyramids Slopes Adn Their Modules Divider. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 15.3 (2015): 225Ã¢â¬â35. Print.Alexanian, Nicole, and Felix Arnold. The Necropolis of Dahshur: Eleventh Excavation Report Spring 2014. Berlin: German Archaeological Institute and Free University of Berlin, 2014. Print.Alexanian, Nicole, et al. The Necropolis of Dahshur: Fifth Excavation Report Spring 2008. Berlin: German Archaeological Institute and Free University of Berlin, 2008. Print.Belmonte, Juan Antonio, and Giulio Magli. Astronomy, Architecture, and Symbolism: The Global Project of Sneferu at Dahshur. Journal for the History of Astronomy 46.2 (2015): 173Ã¢â¬â205. Print.MacKenzie, Kenneth J. D., et al. Were the Casing Stones of Senefrus Bent Pyramid in Dahshour Cast or Carved?: Multinuclear Nmr Evidence. Materials Letters 65.2 (2011): 350Ã¢â¬â52. Print.Magli, Giulio. The Giza Ã¢â¬ËWrittenÃ¢â¬â¢ Landscape and the Double Project of King Khufu. Time and Mind 9.1 (2016): 57-74. Print. Mendelssohn, K. A Building Disaster at the Meidum Pyramid. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59 (1973): 60Ã¢â¬â71. Print.Moeller, Nadine. The Archaeology of Urbanism in Ancient Egypt from the Predynastic Period to the End of the Middle Kingdom. New York: Camridge University Press, 2016. Print.MÃ ¼ller-RÃ ¶mer, Frank. A New Consideration of the Construction Methods of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 44 (2008): 113Ã¢â¬â40. Print.Reader, Colin. On Pyramid Causeways. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 90 (2004): 63Ã¢â¬â71. Print.Rossi, Corinna. Note on the Pyramidion Found at Dahshur. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 85 (1999): 219Ã¢â¬â22. Print.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Nietzsche and Freud Views on Religion - Essay Example Interestingly, though the great German philosopher Nietzsche and Freud both hold on the concept of something beyond the premises of religion, something that may or may not have the comfort of illusion., the two maestros had a difference of opinion on some basic levels. Nietzsche offers a strong criticism against religion, morality, and philosophy by using a blend of Enlightenment-inspired criticism and anti-Enlightenment attack on the life-negating aspects of modern culture. In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s study of the idea of Positivist origin, he broadly defines the causes and purpose of religion in three works, Ã¢â¬Å"Future of an IllusionÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Civilization and Its DiscontentsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Moses and MonotheismÃ¢â¬ . He analyses the origin of the religions and flaunts the psychological debate regarding its cultural significance to mankind. To Freud, religion is a vital par of the processes of traditional civilization. He emphasizes on the premises of manÃ¢â¬â¢s latent and primordial feelings and tries giving voices to those socially unsanctified wishes by trying to provide solutions to these repressed instinctual desires. Thus, religion is held as an illusion that can be compared to the definition of illusion provided by Marx (Communist Manifesto2, in his idea of false consciousness guiding the proletariats) that makes him remark that religion is the opium of the people3. Similar to Marx's assertion, Freud4 shows that religion is a function of the believers' inherent conviction of his faith and cannot be empirically or rationally justified. In his book, "The Future of an Illusion", he says that God is the paternalistic Christian God formed by the primitive human mind, in an effort to explain things beyond its ken and to rebuff the horrors that may arise due to ignorancy Freud also believes that from childhood, a traditional version of Christianity is infused within individuals, and which leads to an easy process of assimilation into our social and national consciousness of a culture. He also points out that this inculcation is so deep-rooted that things are never questioned and carry on as traditional knowledge. This hegemony, or social conditioning, continues even upon attaining maturity from where the religious illusions becomes prone to asserting a kind of social and psychological dogmatism, that suppresses questioning and doubt, and we retain that childish version of religion, even in becoming adults with acute powers of reasoning of rationality. Freud's answer does not lie in renouncing God, but rather, to grow up and switch to Logos, the god of Reason. In scientific terms, he only suggests a form of displacement reaction, only for what he considers a replacement of the bad by the better. Similar to Sartre's bad faith, and in line to the existe ntialist philosophists, renunciation, as according to Freud is impossible. Freud's explains Christianity from the loci of a patriarchal and phallic society, in which the father is a central figure (hence, his analysis of the subconscious as creating a father/protector god, someone to be both loved and feared). Thus, he propounds that the idea of religion emanates from the ardent wishes that lie latent within our subconscious and our neurotic selves: "Religion would thus be the universal obsessional neurosis of humanity; like the obsessional neurosis of children, it arose out of the Oedipus complex, out of the relation to the father. [Consequently] a turning-away from religion is bound to occur with the fatal inevitability of a process of growth" (Freud, 1927, chapter-VIII) In his analysis of religion in Chapter IV, Freud positions the human subjectivity at the centre of his theory. He analyses the urges of a
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Lorillard Financial Performance - Assignment Example This article will focus on the 2011 annual report, by giving a review and analysis of the review according to the stated guidelines. Mission LorillardÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to supply their clients with the best quality menthol cigarettes (Lorillard, 2009). This is achieved by building capabilities and strong processes that support the strategized vision. This is also guaranteed from the commitment and passion portrayed by the employees and the general board members of Lorillard (Lorillard, 2009). The company also ensures that their staff members are able to provide the highest level of excellence through implementation of new strategic plans aimed at boosting the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales. Lorillard Inc. also ensures that they maintain their retail market share through making more sales internationally, hence; marketing its brands (Lorillard Inc., 2011). Vision Lorillard has a vision of becoming the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading company in the manufacture of cigarettes (Lorillard Inc., 2011). Th is can be portrayed from the continuously rising net sales, operating income and earnings per share. They also look into executing their core strategies and outperforming the underlying industry trends. Furthermore, their vision also entails the effortless geographic expansion of existing goods and the launching of new products that promote the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s net sales. ... ities that support their strategic vision, protecting and growing their own menthol cigarette business and carefully pursuing close-in adjacencies (Lorillard Inc., 2011). All the three strategic efforts are aimed in achieving the vision of Lorillard Company. In addition, this helps them to ensure responsible Newport pleasure to all the adult smokers. These outstanding visions have enabled the company to maintain growth in the retail market. The Newport cigarette brand employs the strategy of protecting and growing the menthol cigarette business. Lorillard evidently challenged some of the unwarranted regulations and defended the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom in actively operating in debates with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to respect their selflessness of menthol cigarettes. Lorillard also markets the Newport brand in Washington DC. Through expansion of merchandised programs, Lorillard was able to grow vastly with its main target being the adult smokers of Newport (Lorillard, 2009). Furthermore, Lorillard was able to achieve a record annual share and eliminated distraction after signing of a four-year labor contract with the union associates. An analysis from 2008 shows the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s growth from a mere 9.7% to 11.9% (Lorillard Inc., 2011). In pursuing close-in cigarette adjacencies, the Newport non menthol brand is brought into focus. It is evident that most of the efforts that the Lorillard Inc. focused on entailed expansion of the Newport brand. This is because the Newport brand makes up to 70 percent of the cigarette industry. According to the first year of NewportÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, the non menthol product performed extremely well. Nowadays, Lorillard offers the best menthol products in eight states, in the West. Moreover, they also make considerable profits from
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Astronamy - Essay Example The scientific history of the West commenced around 600 BC, which coincided with the beginning of the Greek civilization (Lankford 425). Some of the eminent Greek astronomers are described in the sequel. Pythagoras of Samos, Ionia taught that any object, principle or idea in the universe was subject to quantification. This fundamental principle provided a concrete mathematical foundation for the fledgling science of astronomy. The Pythagoreans subscribed to the view that each of the planets was attached to a crystalline sphere that had the Earth as its centre. Pythagoras was the first to discover that the morning star and the evening star were the planet Venus (Lankford 425). Thereafter, Aristotle made a number of astronomical discoveries. For instance, he established that phases of the Moon were on account of different sunlit portions being visible in a month. It was his well founded contention that the Sun was a much greater distance than the Moon, from the Earth; because during a solar eclipse the SunÃ¢â¬â¢s light was prevented from reaching the Earth by the intervening Moon (universe). The shadow of the Earth, which is seen on the Moon, during a lunar eclipse, led Aristotle to conclude that the Earth was spherical in shape. At such times, the Earth is interposed between the Sun and the Moon. On the other hand if the Earth had been a flat disk, then its shadow at the edge would have resembled a straight line. Another piece of evidence that he quoted in support of this theory was that after travelling a great distance south, sojourners were unable to see some of the stars that had been visible from Greece. On a flat earth, any person, irrespective of location would have seen the same stars. However, on a spherical Earth, the view from different latitudes, entails different angles; therefore, the stellar constellations viewed are different (universe). The astronomers had established that the Earth was a sphere Ã¢â¬â an oblate spheroid if one desires
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Exploring Modernism In Architecture: Louis Kahn For my essay on Modernism in architecture I intend to explore an architect of the modernist period in order to establish the form, philosophy and social ideas behind modernism. The term modern architecture is ambiguous. It can be understood to refer to all buildings of the modern period regardless of their ideological basis, or it can be understood more specifically as an architecture conscious of its own modernity and striving for change. Modern architecture is a category which usually complements buildings of the 20th and 21st century. It would include Bauhaus / International styles (sometimes used to describe Bauhaus architecture in United States) and also brutalism. Modernism was a reaction against eclecticism and the lavish stylistic excesses of the Art Deco, Art Nouveau and the Victorian ages. However, it is still a matter of taste. Even though Bauhaus, a German design schoolÃ (Operated from 1919-33 By founder Walter Gropius, then by Hans Mayer and Ludwig Mies der Van Rohe) which had profoundly influenced arts and architecture had been more concerned with social aspects of design; none the less, International style soon became a symbolism of Capitalism. Fig.2 shows an interesting and most famous example of this International style. This style of architecture was reserved mainly for office blocks, but was also seen in homes built for the rich and famous. Fig.2 shows another building widely known for its functionalist aesthetic and a masterpiece of corporate modernism. There were many architects who attached their name to this modernistic era, some of the best known being Frank Lloyd Wright(fig.6), Walter Gropius(fig.5), Le Corbusier(fig.2) and Ludwig Mies der Van Rohe(fig.3). 6Fig.6 shows Falling water which was a truly iconic building for many. Wrights design which was for a residential home was above a waterfall. This building portrayed his view of organic architecture. Modern architecture was found to be challenging traditional teachings which were thought to be suitable for architectural design and structure. Modernists designers went on to argue that architects should design everything which is necessary for society. From every detail and furniture in the interior and exteriors of buildings and even led to architects designing the most humble of buildings. I have looked at the broader definition of modernism along with the pioneers who drove this style. Louis Kahn is the architect I have chosen to study in depth. His views of modernism are well known through the modern world of architecture. Louis Kahn Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky (February 20, 1901 or 1902 March 17, 1974), or more commonly known in the world of architecture as Louis Kahn was an architect who was infused within the International style. Kahn graduated from the University Of Pennsylvania School Of Fine Arts in 1924. In the late 1930s Kahns was working as a consultant to the Philadelphia Housing Authority. His affiliation with modern architecture grew as he worked with Europeans Stonorov and George Howe with whom Kahn designed many wartime housing projects which can be seen in fig.8. From these experiences it gave Kahn a sense of social responsibility which was later reflected in his philosophy. 1947 was a year where the Kahn started to emerge. His career had established to a point where he had started a teaching career at Yale University as the Chief Critic in Architectural Design and Professor of Architecture, until 1957. Then at the University of Pennsylvania as Cret Professor of Architecture until his death lonely deat h in a mens room toilet in Pennsylvania Station in New York. Kahn died in deep debt despite his affluent career. Louis Kahn was a critique of mainstream modernism; his work represented the New Monumentality movement which was also promoted by Siegfried Gieldion, Josep Llios Sert and Kahns mentor George Howe. Kahns buildings are incredibly precise in their construction of places for people. I found some pieces of Kahns work particularly interesting to study from a modernistic architectural view. From the list of his most important works I have selected a few which I believe to be particularly symbolic to this essay. From more than a dozen houses which had been designed by Kahn Esherick House was the most renowned. I found Esherick house to one of his most wonderful pieces of work which shows us the direction which he later followed in. A critique says: The Esherick House is definitely one of Kahns most important works which defined lessons hed go on to use in later projects. By this I believe he means that Kahn was finding his element which he had then go onto use in later projects. Kahns career comprises of a lot of interesting work, however, Esherick house stands as one of his most important pieces of work. In the making of the house the control of light had been the preoccupation since the start, and he truly had achieved harmony through natural light as well as distinct style through the transcendence and geometric detail. Kahns principles of light, materiality and geometry are clearly visible here. He starts to impose his future views of form in subtle characteristics of this house. At a glance it is simply concrete and wood which combine to create the facades and interior spaces. The house features a textured mortar finish, with keyhole window which are framed with natural Apilong wood placed at irregular intervals on the front faÃ §ade. The floor plan is a refined design by Kahn. It is shown to contain two symmetrical rectangles which allow struc tural support and openness. This truly modernistic structure shows how Kahns work would unfold in later years. The Esherick houses pure use of geometry and abstract form reflect his modernistic approach to architecture. Kahns work is much greater dipected in his later and much larger projects. The Salk Laboratories which was developed by Dr Jonas Salk, the developer of polio vaccine had intended for a laboratory which was not just somewhere for biological research, but a place which you could invite a man like Picasso.13 The materials used for this vast project were concrete, wood, marble and he also used the element of water in his design which as the massive complex was juxtaposed against the Pacific Ocean was fitting. I found a very fitting description of The Salk laboratories: Kahns use of order before form shows us how he depicted a building to be like a perfect organism with complexity of use inside as well as on the outside. I found a very interesting quote from Kahn about the Salk laboratories. His philosophy of design shows use the kind of man he was and intentions he perused: I did not follow the dictates of the scientists, who said that they are so dedicated to what they are doing that when lunchtime comes all they do is clear away the test tubes from the benches and eat their lunch on these benches. I asked them: was it not a strain with all these noises? And they answered: the noises of the refrigerators are terrible; the noises of centrifuges are terrible; the trickling of the water is terrible. Everything was terrible including the noises of the air-conditioning system. So I would not listen to them as to what should be done. And I realised that there should be a clean air and stainless steel area, and a rug and oak table area. From this realisation form became. I separated the studies from the laboratory and placed them over gardens. The garden became outdoor spaces where one can talk. Now one need not spend all the time in the laboratories. When one knows what to do, there is only little time one needs for doing it. It is only when one does not know what to do that it takes so much time. And to know what to do is the secret of it all. I deduce from this extract Kahns knowledge and confidence. I see how Kahn believed in a new modern form of architecture. He says it as if he already has the thoughts and ideas to transform buildings into styled and ordered space. Kahns interpretations were seemingly much clearer; he wanted a modern architecture less concerned with aesthetics and what the building looks like. He was more intrigued by the spaces of the building and how the spaces were being used, and what order this would create for them. He wanted to make spaces which would affect the experiences of those who inhabited those spaces. Salk laboratory shows us a design which had predominantly established the foundational significance; order of space an then the geometries. He used this structure of thought for his designs of all institutions such as Salk laboratories. The final version of the Salk laboratories brought him to accept a solution in which services were as repressed or concealed as in any office building by Mies Van der Rohe From this large project he moved onto a next, however, this one remaining unbuilt whilst he was still living. Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban in Dhaka, Bangladesh is regarded to be on this is great monuments of international modernism. This building was considered as his masterpiece of his lifetime. Construction of this building had stated by 1961 however due to its vast enormity didnt finish construction until nine years after his death in 1983 which means it took around 20 years to build. The national assembly building was Kahns most important piece of work. The space was very grand. The interior area for the Assembly building was spilt into 3 sections. The zone in the centre provides circulation. The main area or central zone is for the main assembly. The exterior zone is where the offices and lounges are, also this is where the entrance to the main mosque is. In the design we can see how natural light is a very important element in this building. The building seems as if it is solely for religious purposes and has a heavy spiritual flair. In the assembly I have introduced a light-giving element to the interior of the plan. If you see a series of columns you can say that the choice of columns is a choice in light. The columns as solids frame the spaces of light. Now think of it just in reverse and think that the columns are hollow and much bigger and that their walls can themselves give light, then the voids are rooms, and the column is the maker of light and can take on complex shapes and be the supporter of spaces and give light to spaces. I am working to develop the element to such an extent that it becomes a poetic entity which has its own beauty outside of its place in the composition. In this way it becomes analogous to the solid column I mentioned above as a giver of light. Here Kahn talks about the Bangladesh project. He reiterates the importance of light in the space and his poetic entity which he adds to every design to create a great sense of beauty. In the designing of these three projects we can see how Kahn has used his knowledge to help create spaces which execute both form and function desirably to the client. Kahn talks about how his greater understanding of what is needed helps him complete his task easily. Kahn talks about beauty as the great philosopher St Thomas Aquinas did. Aquinas believed that beauty consisted of four ingredients: Integrity, wholeness, symmetry, and radiance. By integrity he meant that something is complete on its own without any being dependant on anything outside it. By wholeness he means every part has a reason and cant be taken away without destroying the whole beauty of it. Symmetry referring to balance, something cant just change without a corresponding result. This was similar the constants which had appeared in Kahns work. The sense of composition, the integrity of a building reverence for material, sense of room, light as the maker of the structure and architecture of connection Kahn tried to apply these models into all of his projects. One even described him as: a philosopher among architects. This is from his every expressing philosophy on his work. Essentially Kahn saw architecture as being a spiritual form of communication. He grew a strong relation with each project by applying a strong hierarchy with order being the most important. Kahn was famous for being a critique of modernism. He found many influential architects of the time to have been misjudging the order of their designs. Kahns critue started with him rejecting a free plan; a concept which Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier had attached themselves to, along with modernism. Kahn believed that separating these two concepts of form from the structure, would mean the free plan as previously interpreted by Van de Rohe and Le Corbusier had opened up a void that could only be filled with subjective intuition. Essentially Kahns work did seem consistent with that of the broader view of architecture however, his view of modern architecture was something which was unpredictable and had no rules to follow or principles to ad ear to. He found that the international style of modern architecture at the time which was being used by many architects in America and Europe had been too concerned with the form and not the function. Kahn was concerned with the things man has been looking for since the beginning and in this he was a fundamentalist was not interested in the realization, of something which had already occurred, but in the possibility that something will occur within the walls This tells us that Kahn was more of Prophet than simply a preacher. He wanted to change the views on architecture and introduce what he believed to be the necessary condition for the presence of architecture. Miess sensitivites react to imposed structural order with little inspiration, Le Corbusier passes through order impatiently and hurries to form. Kahn talked about Mies Van der Rohe and Le Corbusier imperfection in structural order, and their rush of order leads to an imperfection in form. Kahns order derived from nature and this is reflected in his projects. In the nature of space is the spirit and the will to exist in a certain way. Design must closely follow that will. The pure order, form and geometry is why Louis Kahn still influence the world today. His work directly impacts and inspires forms of architecture today such as post modernism and neo rationalist. More than this Louis Kahn redefined modernism. He has thrilled onlookers with his vast philosophy; however his patrons only appeared in his later years. Kahn adapted architecture and had an input as to what we see when we analyse today. He showed us in his vast texts, to every detail the visions he had, and how he intended to erect these visions. Predominately we can see that he was drifting away from modernism, however, I have studied how Kahns vision set modernism into track somewhere that it wouldnt have been without his influence. It was not belief, not design, not pattern, but the essence from which an institution could emerge